January 2, 2012 21:04
In the most stagnant years of the Soviet period Crimean village Koktebel became the island of freedom, which sought romance, poets, mystics and astrologers. Magnificent natural aura bestowed them a powerful impulse of creative inspiration.
A well-known around the world this piece of Crimean land, bearing the ancient name of Cimmeria, was by Maximilian Voloshin. Fine artist, deep poet, philosopher, traveler, visionary and psychic lived in Koktebel his best years. Fan of Johann Kaspar Lavater theories that laid the foundation of science of physiognomy and predict the fate of the faces, Voloshin had in his library the works of the legendary Swiss and often use them in their predictions. So, Maximilian predicted the tragic fate of his close friends and guests Koktebel: Osip Mandelstam, Mikhail Bulgakov, Marina Tsvetaeva.
The locals knew about visionary gift Voloshin. One day a neighbor came to him and said, "Tomorrow I have to go to Yalta on business. Will successful this trip? "Voloshin said," You do not have to go to Yalta tomorrow as possible heavy rain, the road becomes slippery, and the cart may fall into the abyss! "Guest disobeyed and still hit the road, but suddenly the blue sky delayed the clouds, rain hit, and the steep serpentine carriage with a horse and rider really fell into the abyss.
Voloshin had the magical ability to Pyrokinesis. Visit his estate recalled how he look bonfire.
Maximilian was born in Kiev, May 16, 1877. Early childhood in Taganrog and Sevastopol, then home to family Voloshin was Moscow, where Max was in high school. When he was 17, his mother — Elena Ottobaldovna — bought a house in Koktebel, Voloshin who later called the "true home of the spirit."
Two years of student life in Moscow Voloshin left a feeling of emptiness and fruitless search. In 1899, the tsarist authorities sent him to the Crimea for the organization of student unrest. A year later, he was able to go abroad and visited Italy, Switzerland, France and Germany. When he returned, was admitted to the examinations and began his studies in the third year law school. For revolutionary activity was deported to Central Asia.
Six months spent in the desert with a camel caravan, was a defining moment of his spiritual life. In exile, he read a lot, and (in his words) "felt Asia, East, and all the relative antiquity of European culture."
In 1901, Voloshin settled in Paris, where he met with local bohemians (artists, poets, musicians). Published articles on the artistic life of Paris, philosophical poems and essays in many newspapers and magazines. He made friends with a Tibetan Lama and touched Buddhism in its origins. In 1902 he went to Rome, where he studied Catholicism. At the same time he met with black magic, the occult, Freemasonry, Theosophy. Great influence on Maximilian had a meeting with the Austrian philosopher-mystic Rudolf Steiner.
In 1906, he married the daughter Voloshin Millionaire Margarita Sabashnikovyh. A year later, she went to the idol Max — a poet Vyacheslav Ivanov. "He took it on the right of the strong" — cast a naive child and accept the loss. Family happiness he found with Mary Zabolotskaya, who shared with the poet all the hardships and joys of being Koktebel.
In 1910, the first book of poems Voloshin, which brought fame to the poet all over Russia. Imperialist war years Max spent in the "Koktebel gate." Wrote many amazingly talented, light, transparent watercolors. Make an amazing poem about war.
Voloshin had a fine flair that distinguish a really ugly and evil secret signs of the future. Here's how he described the landscape around him in the spring of 1917, "melted. Moscow razvezlo. Wet snow under the Kremlin walls were troops and a group of protesters … And then suddenly and horribly clear, it became clear that this is only the beginning, that the Russian revolution would be a long, crazy, bloody, that we are on the verge of another Great devastation of the Russian land, New Troubles time. "
As a guest of the Moscow friend, Voloshin arguing with him about what will be the capital in 2000. To make their case more convincing, Maximilian took a pencil and sketched a picture of the future of Moscow. What is amazing — it is surprisingly similar to modern Novy Arbat with its skyscrapers and glittering storefronts supermarkets.
Subsequently magical vision, given the nature of Voloshin, repeatedly surprised his friends. Long before the close study of the Moon, he predicted, looks like this planet. He wrote: "No dusk, no air, no water. Only the sharp brilliance of granite, schist, feldspar. No loops dawns, no evening sunset sky did not light up the black! "" Poet space hunches "referred to his Gumilev.
Above the fray
Terrible years of the Civil War, when the Crimea several times passed it to white, then to red, Voloshin lived in Koktebel. He aspired to be "above the fray" and confessed in his poems, that his house found shelter "and the white chief, and red officer."
Thus protected and concealed people, because he thought: "mass mutual extermination of Russian citizens is intolerable idiocy." Marina Tsvetaeva later wrote: "Every hand raised to strike Max turned to his surprise omission, and it happened, and stretched. He did it quickly and sincerely. "
Some times only a miracle saved him from execution. And in June 1919, risking his life, he is saved from death Koktebel and its people. Then came the bay cruiser "Cahul," two British destroyers and landing barge with a white General Slaschova. Suddenly the guard cordon Koktebel opened fire on the cruiser. Powerful ship launched their deadly weapons and prepared to bulldoze brazen settlement. Then Voloshin hitched to a long stick white handkerchief, jumped into the boat and swam towards guns. Commander and officers cruiser knew his poetry, so with respect and listened attentively to a fiery speech Maximilian and unanimously decided not to shoot at Koktebel.
And when the red came to the Crimea, the bloodthirsty terror mastermind Bela Kun allowed the poet to delete from death list of those who knew Voloshin. So he was able to save him from death, tens of people.
The last refuge
Poet managed to survive harsh years internecine slaughter, and in 1923 he turned his house into a kind of "House of Creativity". It is a free shelter members of the Soviet intelligentsia. There rested Tolstoy, Gorky, Mikhail Bulgakov, Prishvin, V. Polenov. Chukovsky, A. White, A. Twardowski, M. Shahinian and many others. During the day they were traveling in the surrounding mountains, create, swim in the warm sea, and in the evening gathered in the living room by Voloshin and recited poetry, played music and sang.
Here is an excerpt from one of denunciation 20s: "I report that, as a mystic and symbolist, Voloshin sees all phenomena a particular angle of view. Often views Koktebel estate owner does not match with the party line and are openly counterrevolutionary character! "
During the epidemic of Stalinist repression he could hardly survive. Too unusual, independent and vibrant person he was. From the terrible fate of Max saved in 1932 death.
The poet was buried on a high mountain Koktebel Kuchuk Yanishar. His final resting place always attracts admirers of his poetry. By long tradition, they do not bring flowers to the grave, and the run-Sea Koktebel colored pebbles. As a symbol of eternal love and respect.