Consolidation of the Russian aircraft engine, launched in 2008, five years has a real chance to end the almost complete union of design and manufacturing resources. It will happen after the end of 2013 will be held shareholding FSUE SPC Gas Turbine "Salute". Formed will be a part of the State Corporation Rostekhnadzor, which will make 100% of the shares in payment of the share capital OPK "Oboronprom". Manage the same with all engine-building assets have a daughter "Oboronprom" — UK "United Engine Corporation." Outside the perimeter of UEC are only "KMPO" and AESTC "Union", which to date have actually stopped working on large-scale production for aviation.
Today JSC "MC" UEC "brings together 85% of the assets aircraft engine industry, including JSC" Aircraft Engine ", JSC" Klimov ", JSC" Kuznetsov ", JSC" MMP. VV Chernyshev ", JSC" NPO "Saturn", JSC "NPP" Motor "," PMZ "OJSC," Saturn — Gas Turbines ", of" Star "and JSC" Ufa Engine Industrial Association ".
Even if we summarize the performance DCS and "Salute", the Russian engine is in the world ranking modest seventh position: sales of domestic engine builders is 5.5 times less than the leader — GE Aviation. But on the horizon in 2025 is expected to triple the volume of production, which will be fixed APC in the top five manufacturers of gas turbine engines.
Recovering from the crisis
Chronicles of the Russian aircraft engine generally reflect the processes in the various sectors of the defense industry. After the dramatic failure of the 1990s, much of the business was stagnating, and not adapting to market conditions. Two production plant — Moscow's "Salute" and the Ufa Engine Industrial Association (UMPO), specializing in the production of engines AL-31, in front of dynamic growth, increasing sales and modernizing production. In fact, the key issue for the survival of businesses were export contracts for the supply of engines for fighter planes of the Su-27 / Su-30. In a somewhat worse position were manufacturers of engines for the MiG-29 — Exports of military vehicles significantly lagged behind in terms of sales, "dryers". Market niche, providing survival remained supply ground power units. And, perhaps, only one Russian company that had no export recharge seriously stood out from the crowd thanks to its aggressive policy — private "Rybinsk Motors." Due to its product line family of engines D-30KP / A-30KU applied on-demand while the Il-76, Il-62M and Tu-154, the company unfolded offensive on a number of fronts: acquired located in Moscow Design Bureau "Saturn" which gave the name of the combined company. In the future, the company's shareholders could buy a stake UMPO. In parallel, the company has launched a large-scale program of modernization within the framework of the development of mass production SaM-146 engine for the aircraft Sukhoi Superjet-100. Also, "Saturn" was the parent company to develop the engine for the fifth generation fighter.
On the background was developed in the mid-2000s, the idea of consolidation of assets in different industries, integration processes are started in the aircraft engine. The fundamental decision on the format of the merger was made in August 2007 at a retreat of the Military-Industrial Commission in the presence of Russian President Vladimir Putin. Originally intended to establish four holdings: the largest was to form a subsidiary of the State Corporation "Russian Technologies" — OPK "Oboronprom" on the basis of the enterprises of the Perm bush companies Rybinsk "Saturn" and UMPO. Alone would stand bush enterprises Samara region, metropolitan "Salute" with the attached Omsk Production Association. Baranova and holding on the base of Petersburg "Klimov Plant" and the Moscow Machine-Building Enterprise them. Chernyshev. But at that time won a point of view that the consolidation of the assets and the removal of internal competition will have a positive impact on the industry. As a consequence, the daughter of "Russian Technologies" to force the issue, and in 2008 by presidential decree "Oboronprom" were transferred to state shares Motors, which were then given to the management of the subsidiary structure — "Management Company" United Engine Corporation '(APC). "Oboronprom" and also gained control over the "NPO" Saturn "and" Ufa Engine Industrial Association "(UMPO), despite the absence of large government stake in these companies.
Creation Engine Corporation has coincided with the global financial crisis, which can be considered to be quite successful consolidation ideologues coincidence. In the period from 2009 to 2011 "Oboronprom" redeemed missing packages from private shareholders, and the difficult financial situation created by JSC "NPO" Saturn "has become one of the key factors that allowed the state to return a large enterprise. Rybinsk venture led several programs, but for such an aggressive expansion to be paid. With the onset of the financial crisis, more than $ 20 billion debt and technical defaults on bonds for the plant became a millstone. The end came when the company received financial aid and loans from the state and the ex-CEO and owner of the company, Yuri Dove sold his shares of "Saturn". "
The crisis in 2008 was characterized by a sharp decrease in the rate of output growth in the industry. If, before the sales of aircraft engine business has grown by 15-20% per year, it is now down to 1.5-2%. Against the background of the rising cost of steel production and the falling dollar, export-oriented enterprises suffered losses. Next year also proved to be a young corporation deeply unprofitable: the profit shown only UMPO and "Klimov". The total revenue of the DCS and the "Salute" was estimated at 92.1 billion rubles, was released almost 600 engines. However, out of this number, only 288 — aviation. The others were for ground application, space programs, and so on.
Despite the gravity of the economic situation, it is in this period of aviation engine business (and not only them) poured the golden rain of government support. So in 2009, the state funds have been made to the charter capital of companies: from 14 billion rubles, inherited motorists, 5.2 billion received a "Saturn", 3,172 — Samara "Motorostroitel ', 2900000000 — MMP. Chernyshev. The government supported the aviation industry and businesses in the form of state guarantees: "Saturn" — 10 billion rubles, MMP. Chernyshev — 4.951 billion rubles, UMPO — 4,990 billion rubles, "engine builders" — 3.08 billion rubles, PMZ — 2.484 billion rubles, "Salute" — 4.987 billion rubles, of more than 31 billion record funding for and implemented within the framework of the federal target program for the development of Russian civil aviation.
Time moves tactical and strategic decisions
Under the leadership of General Director Andrey Reus, who combined this position with that of the head of OPK "Oboronprom", UEC acquired today outlines. The corporation adopted the strategy, the threat of bankruptcy has passed. Contours of the future began to take shape divisional structure UEC. The period from 2010 to 2012 was characterized by revenue growth companies of the group, with increased amounts of produced and repaired engines. The corpora
tion clearly stood out leaders and outsiders: the company consistently profitable, and companies that generate billions of dollars in losses. The latter at the end of 2012 treated of "Smiths", JSC "MMP. VV Chernyshev "and" Perm Engine Company ".
The new head of RCD — Vladislav Masalova, has taken up the post in July 2012 — had to solve several problems, both the tactical and strategic level. Moreover, current challenges, as usual, were "burning" — the consolidated financial results of the corporation of the year remained in the "red zone", and the debt burden of companies implementing almost fifty investment programs has grown by leaps and bounds. At the end of 2012, the loan portfolio reached 90% of the revenue of enterprises, and the cost of its service for the year amounted to 8.3 billion rubles. This has led to run the mechanisms of debt refinancing. Substitution of short-term lending rate of 12-14% per annum long and relatively cheap money will reduce the maintenance costs of borrowing.
In the spring and summer of 2013, negotiations with the leading Russian banks issuing loans to three "problem" plants. Most quickly reached an agreement with VTB Bank to grant loans "Perm Engine Company". Having a contract with JSC "United Aircraft Corporation" for the supply of 156 engines PS-90A-76 for military transport aircraft Il-76MD-90A engine builders have attracted funding for periods of 5-7 years. These funds will help how to restructure the loan portfolio in the amount of 11 billion and replenish working capital and start the engine assembly. This is doubly important, as prepayment for deliveries of IL-76 by the customer — the Russian Ministry of Defense — provided the second half of 2015.
Previously debated similar approaches in respect of OJSC "Smith" and JSC "WFP them. VV Chernyshev. " However, if the second company in the framework of existing federal programs should receive public funds to replenish capital, which will issue a credit against future receipts of budget money, "Smith" can only rely on the signing of major contracts with the Ministry of Defence for the production of new NK-32 and Repair already operated motors for strategic bombers, as well as with the U.S. company Aerojet, planning to purchase a large batch of rocket engines NK-33. According to current estimates, the need to refinance more than 11 billion rubles — of "Smith" and about 22 billion rubles — of "WFP them. VV Chernyshev. "
One of the first challenges for the new leadership was opacity of the enterprise. Required to establish the processes of budgeting and planning, reporting. Analysis of financial instruments has revealed the presence of hidden losses that the results of 2012 are reflected in the balance sheet. On problem plants under new management. Inventory processes were running technical state enterprises and audit of the investment programs. The first test showed that not all plants formed weighted investment: it is often buy expensive equipment, load is fully advanced manufacturing program is not allowed. The reason — the habit of doing "subsistence farming" that is placed in every factory all the competencies that are needed to produce the final product. As a result of inventory management was requested to reduce its investment program by 45 billion rubles, which should result in savings of 19.5 billion rubles on the horizon in 2020.
Do not expect a smaller effect on the reconfiguration of the production facilities with the release of centers of competence, cooperation and alignment of the reduction of excess space. Today, the possibility of production plants UEC is about 3.5 times higher than the current release, giving the same 20% of the area can fetch additional revenue and save the content of about 14 billion rubles. Even the order of 3.7 billion, will add increased efficiency as a result of the establishment of centers of competence, 5.7 billion rubles will be able to get by abandoning non-core assets.
These promising results, however, are quite stringent measures. For example, MMP. Chernyshev cease operations by 2016. This decision is due, on the one hand, the loss-making areas, on the other — it is impossible to reconstruct the city limits production, which is the third level of environmental risk. Today, the Moscow area, the plant produces a family of engines RD-33 MiG-29 fighters and their modifications. In addition, the company is a participant in a cooperative producing engines TV7-117 Mi-38 and, potentially, light transport aircraft Il-112T. Within the division, "Engines for combat aircraft" designed reform of production, which involves the gradual development of the production of all versions of the RD-33 at the facilities UMPO and "Salute", and in 2016 the production of the RD-33 will take place in the new cooperation: Moscow and Omsk area "Salute" and UMPO. The range of helicopter engines will be manufactured at UMPO and "Klimov".
Future Capital "Salute" is not so tragic: he will have to give up only on the test aircraft engines at the main site in Moscow, but not only continue, but also expand the competence of the production units of so-called "hot parts" and other high-tech, but eco-friendly processes. The plant will be loaded with orders for AI-222 and D-436, as well as — if it's true — the D-27 military transport for the An-70. But still dominate fighter will be subject. This year, the metropolitan and the Ufa company collected the AL-31F engines, which use received under the counter cooperation components, and the cost of the analysis showed that Moscow can provide the level of costs for a range of products is lower than in Ufa. This saves the "Salute" from closing or transferring out of the city.
Divisions vs Directorate
Strategic direction for the APC — forming internal cooperation among enterprises, the transition from a diversified model where each plant is engaged in all possible activities, including non-core to the model of specialization. World experience shows that the concentration in certain operations, the technological updating can improve the work efficiency. The same route is calculated to domestic and engine manufacturers.
First of all, the production capacity of all production plants Corporation assessed a special commission headed by the deputy director of the JDC Sergei Pavlinich. For key technologies made a map: aluminum and titanium casting mastered in Ufa, electron beam welding doing in Perm, Gas-isostatic treatment blades performs capital enterprise. Competence center for the production of compressor blades is created in the Moscow suburb of Naro-Fominsk on the basis of the "daughter", "Salute".
Seeing the current production capacity and an ambitious program of production engines, it can be concluded whether there is enough available capacity or the need to build them. That is exactly what form the investment programs that provide technical upgrading. In addition, underused production at a number of plants can be eliminated by passing these volumes neighbors.
Management believes that the UEC, to build co-operation is most appropriate in the division, having specialization by type of products. Processes and technical requirements relevant to the civil engine building, better allocation between plants, traditionally produces engines for passenger aircraft. Of course, it is possible and cooperation between divisions — if a particular process technology requires extremely expensive equipment.
For all the logic of a divisional structure, its implementation has encountered resistance within the corporation. The main conflict erupted between the Permian and the bush Rybinsk Motors 'Saturn'. The latter received the status of the parent company in civil engines. The pre
sence of type certificates for the engine SaM-146, issued by the Aviation Register of Interstate Aviation Committee and EASA, explains a balance of power: who knows how to make a modern aircraft engine, and that should lead the work on this topic. However, in Perm have strong cards. First, the PS-90A and the PS-90A2 Permian development — quite modern engines, the Aviation certified and operated in Russia and abroad. Secondly, the biggest and most ambitious project in the field of civil UEC engine — creating a family of advanced engines on the basis of unified gas generator. Permian leads this project "Aircraft Engine".
To implement cooperative was formed, which included the leading Russian companies. Coordinates the work of research institutes, as well as Perm, Ufa and Rybinsk enterprise project management of PD-14, which is headed by Alexander Inozemtsev — General Designer — Managing Director of "Aircraft Engine". It was he in real time conducting briefings and meetings, coordinating the work of partners. But his point of view on the international certification of a new engine and approaches to financing the cost of the project and the formation of PD-14 drew criticism APC leadership. More questions to be reliable PS-90A engines of development "Aero Engines' and a reluctance to consider the certification of the PD-14 experience in SaM146, gained in Rybinsk.
Subsequently, this led to the preparation of guidelines for the vote on the board of directors on the issue of the separation of powers of the general designer and CEO of "Aero Engines." However, intervened in the conflict Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin, who is likely to take a decision itself of personnel changes in the "Aero Engines." And in June, with the inspection of the project PD-14 in Perm, visited the Minister of Industry and Trade Denis Manturov. He said that "to Inozemtsev as an engineer manager with great experience, who knows how to design, create, and subsequently participate in the production of the engine, I personally have no complaints about him not." But the minister also noted that "it is important that every leader KB or serial enterprises involved in the integration process with a positive attitude and give constructive criticism in addition to suggestions." Alexander Foreigners took this suggestion literally a few hours later at the meeting, he said: "no one administration division does not help, just ruin everything. The only way — is to get together in the engineering center, and implement those projects that we still have a huge amount to be done, and for the defense of the country. " Referring engines for advanced tactical systems and long-range aircraft, wide-body passenger aircraft, the head of "Aero Engines' actually expressed ambitions for the management of all aviation projects UEC.
"We have to beat on his hands!"
Change of generations of leaders in the aircraft engine, even during the Soviet period is not always go smoothly, but then the continuity was evident. Now the same update managers, with the inevitable change of ownership and change the paradigm of development, accompanied by loud accusations of conflicts and the collapse of the industry. Many swords were broken around the "Saturn", when "leaving" George Swallow. "Perm Engine Company" Directors changed almost every year. But one of the most illustrative example is the Samara Scientific-Technical Complex. Kuznetsova (later became part of "Smith").
Since 1994, it was led by the Director — General Designer Eugene Gritsenko. For 10 years the management of the company, he did not allow the collapse of the company, retained staff. However, the financial position of the design bureau worse from year to year. In 2004, to save the company from Moscow sent the "Varyag" — a former test pilot Sergei Tresvyatskaya. In 2007, because of wage arrears was disqualified as a director and dismissed. His successor, Dmitry Fedorchenko, then chief designer Samara KB, too, was a temporary figure. After the change of ownership — state-owned stake of the shares was transferred to "Oboronprom" — for the post of director general was appointed Nikolai Nikitin. He managed to hold extremely painful reforms as a result of which four (in the process also included Volga Avita) Samara companies were merged into OJSC "Smith." On the one hand, there were the financial results — the newly created company had no debt on wages and taxes, was financially stable, took over as defense contracts to repair engines for the Strategic Air Command. On the other — the labor collective discontent, conflict with local authorities and devastating articles in the press. In November 2011, the position of Executive Director of "Smith" took Yuri Eliseev, ex-CEO of Moscow's "Salute". It would seem, found a piece that suits everyone: Yu.Eliseeva perceived as an experienced production worker, able to set up production and repair of engines, to modernization, repair relations with local authorities and staff. However, in April 2013, the regular replacement and the company was headed by a native of the Russian Federal Space Agency Nikolai Jakushin.
Dismissal Yu.Eliseeva that caused a strong reaction in Samara, due to a bloated investment program, which launched the company. "Over the past two years in Samara appeared hulk of projects that has nothing to do with the financial results of the company," — described the situation V.Masalov. The result was the increase in accounts payable. In this long-awaited firm contracts for the production of new engines NK-32 for strategic air and missile NK-33 was not signed. Similar reasons were layoffs and other stories from the personnel changes the previous two years. Commenting on the results of the audit of investment plans conducted by a specially created working group in the DCS, V.Masalov in the hearts said, "there are companies where you have what is called a hit on his hands, and somehow restrain (s) responsible," meaning the discrepancy between desired outlay and real incomes.
However, it would be wrong to say that any investment plans automatically falls under the knife of the Group Management. If the project has verified the business plan and financial model of a slender, the probability of its implementation is quite high. JDC Enterprises recipients of large amounts under federal programs: the defense industry development and the development of civil aircraft. Using these resources, credit facilities and assuming the proceeds from the sale of redundant space, JSC "Klimov" launched the construction of a completely new plant outside St. Petersburg. What is important today, "Klimov" secured orders for engines for "Helicopters of Russia" for years to come. Management "Perm Engine Company" by September of this year is to prepare proposals for the development of the production site, which include two scenarios — reconstruction of existing facilities and the removal of production in the territory of Perm. Preliminary calculations show that the construction of the new location will cost at least 18-20 billion. However, the annual savings from cost reduction is expected to reach 1.1 billion, 1.3 billion still possible to gain a lump sum from the sale of the site, located in the city.
At the end of 2012 "Oboronprom" has completed the transfer of all UEC shares of the enterprises Motors and by the middle of 2013, the corporation decided most of the issues related to the consolidation of assets. Turning into "United Engine Corporation", "Salute" today is a technical issue, while the operating activities of the Moscow factory being built to meet future cooperative chains. Regarding the personnel changes, building a clear management structure — just a matter of time. The current financial model
JDC provides access to profit in 2018, and in the decade (2010 to 2019), revenue is expected to double. Time of great change took place, an era of fine tuning.