April 9, 2012 19:03
Science fiction is full of devices that can look inside the brain and read our thoughts.
Dreams — is confusing stories that are hard to beat on successive images or concepts. Moreover, for each of the human brain, a set of images will be his, because you can not find two identical brain, whose work will be organized the same way. That's why scientists are recognized: a machine that can decode our dreams, and which was a long dream of writers and filmmakers to create easy. However, the case does not stand still. Science is coming to the invention of such a device. And looking for ways to record everything he sees our sleeping brain, writes infoniac.ru.
— The task of interpretation of dreams — this decoding of the 100 billion neurons or brain nerve cells. And in order to interpret, we must first measure, while existing tools today to measure the activity of the human brain are not the best, — says Professor Jack Gallant (Jack Gallant), a neuroscientist at the University of California at Berkeley.
Some methods, such as electroencephalography and magnitnoentsefalografiya measure electric and magnetic fields, which makes the human brain during the neurons. But at best, they can investigate only 5-10 millimeters of brain tissue, and at this depth are only a few of hundreds of millions of neurons. And because of the complex structure of the brain, the neurons are located in nearby areas to each other, and carry with very different functions.
There are other methods. The most common — functional magnetic resonance imaging. But, frankly, it gives only a superficial picture of neuronal activity. However, MRI has been used repeatedly to decode the encoded images of the brain activity.
In one recent experiment, the three team members Galant hours watching videos on YouTube, while scanned the visual centers of the brain. These data formed the mathematical model, which acted as a think as a dictionary that can translate neural activity into pictures. Dictionary later recreated what is seen by scanning volunteers hours of random clips and search for those that meet any of their brain activity. Reconstructed images were blurry and grainy, but Galante believes that over time, the technology will be improved.
His colleague Moran Cerf (Moran Cerf) from the California Institute of Technology is trying to decipher what the person thinks. It uses tiny electrodes to measure the activity of individual neurons in the hippocampus of the brain, which is involved in the creation of memories. Thus visualize a person's thoughts — it's quite a difficult exercise, but when the man dreams, the task becomes even more difficult.
Scientists predict that maybe in the next decade will be able to create a device that could read dreams.
FROM THE FILES "KP"
Today, scientists are making efforts to learn to read a person's thoughts computers. The first tests carried out on the deaf and people stricken with paralysis, disability, deprived of arms or legs. Since one purpose — to help them not to feel in this world flawed.
Spielberg never dreamed of
Development in the development of devices "for interpreting brain signals" going on today in many centers: at Carnegie Mellon University, Dartmouth College and Boston University (all USA), University of Toronto (Canada), the Institute of the brain and consciousness Max Planck (Germany), Budapest University of Technology and Economics Research Hospital Fund of Saint Lucia in Rome (Italy) and others. Here are the latest developments.
*What creates. A device that converts brain signals into words and sentences, and allows mentally dictate text.
Who is the author. Professor Mark van Hyulle from the University of Louvain in Belgium.
DESCRIPTION. It is a small device — EEG, which monitors fluctuations of electrical activity of the brain, through which people can print text with a thought. The device itself slightly bigger than a matchbox attached to a special cap, similar to the pools, which are attached to the electrodes. Signals of brain electrical activity recorded instrument via USB-port transferred to the computer, where they are decrypted using a special software. To spell a word, one must make some effort to focus on one of the letters of the character set, the displayed computer. Each of the characters on the screen lights up with a certain frequency and when the desired letter is released, the brain reacts to it. After a few sessions, the computer begins to understand the signals from the brain, then you can begin a mental dictation.
— The device is able to write a letter, and can even automatically complete words or sentences, — said Professor van Hyulle. — We tested the system for about a dozen patients with bleeding in the brain, and all of them were able to successfully write words with up to ten characters per minute.
*Created. Running experimental model of adaptation to manipulate consumer devices by thought.
Who is the author. Research Hospital Fund of Saint Lucia in Rome.
DESCRIPTION. With this invention, attached to the head diodes (two-electrode electronic devices) and receive signals from the brain, people can, for example, switches off and turn on the lights in the house to answer the phone. Focusing on a subject of interest to the so-called "wave" can be interpreted in a special computer or that action. Since the thought process of people like the wave level, the device works equally well for everyone. During testing, the computer matched the thoughts of people in 85% of cases — really high.
*Created. Device that reads a person's thoughts aloud. Or rather — a digital device that converts pulses of brain neurons in the visual or sound images.
Who is the author. Corporation Ambient.
DESCRIPTION. Is a collar for a man that reads nerve impulses and "give voice" them in near real time. Owner of the device requires special training of short duration, after which it will be able to manage their own vocal cords without sound vibrations. In other words, superosheynik "pronounces" for a man his thoughts, duplicating speech activity electronically.
However, while the combined reader neyroimpulsov to convert them to speech and learned to play it was not possible: the collar only captures brain signals that are then transmitted wirelessly to a computer, and he, in turn, produces the corresponding operations and gives the finished result in a sounding phrases. Moreover, according to the developers, for the collar requires "something more than just a thought."
The fact that the Audeo starts to work only with a certain degree of concentration. He must first learn to focus on a particular thought is so clear that it can be fixed appliances. It turns out, the owner of the collar can be quite normal to talk, while the reader thoughts will keep silence. "We can distinguish between when you want to talk to myself or out loud," — say the engineers. Audeo requires significant improvement even for the reason that today can recognize and play only about 150 words and phrases.
… By all predictions, mind reading technique will be improved further. Because such devices are more effective now used lie detectors. And then it will use the instruments in the tax police, the personnel department, and most importantly — to simplify the procedure for examination of criminals. And even anticipate crime, as shown by Steven Spielberg in his film "Minority Report", where the penalty is not imposed nearly a minute before the murder.
— Mind-reading technology has already appeared, and we need to think about its possible consequences is that they did not catch us by surprise — worries Professor John Dylan Haynes from the Institute of Cognitive Psychology and Brain Science Max Planck (Germany). — Ability to read the thoughts of the people will be in the next few years, and we have to be ready for it.