In the news, we constantly see stories about hurricanes, disastrous floods, droughts, and other large-scale destructive natural phenomena. And more and more, mostly in the various conspiracy theories, distributed replicas that these disasters — the result of a new weapon — the climate.
Under the climate, or as it is called geophysical, weapons understand the impact of technology on one or another natural phenomenon. At the present stage it is basically a way to control the movement of air masses, precipitation, variations of the crust and other environmental factors. The question is, what techniques of geophysical weapons in reality there are and how they can be used to achieve certain military and political objectives.
Water and wind
Tropical storms become a real disaster for the U.S.. And because in this country there is a steady trend of people moving to the coast, then the damage from hurricanes is growing every year. The champion was a hurricane "Katrina" in 2005, which cost the U.S. treasury at 41 billion dollars, which, for example, for any country in South America would be a catastrophic financial loss, significantly reduces the economic and military potential.
The U.S. government, realizing the seriousness of the problem, initiate the work of managing hurricanes long time — since 1960 — and they were originally intended solely for the peaceful course: for coastal protection from the elements.
In 1962, American scientists have begun to draft Stormfury. Under this project, the world's first large-scale experiments were carried out by seeding clouds of silver iodide, which was to turn into a hurricane gaining strength harmless rain.
Experiments were conducted with varying success: scientists have stated that wind power is reduced by 10-30%, at the same time large number of cases where cloud seeding had no effect no effect on the hurricane. You can say that on the whole project to stop hurricanes had failed, although he remained until 1983. But the researchers were able to achieve the same: they found a sure way to cause rain. And the results of their work were immediately used creatively by the U.S. military, who were bitter war in Vietnam.
From 1967 to 1972, the U.S. military carried out an operation on Popeye cloud seeding silver iodide. The aim of this military operation was an embarrassment of the insurgency and the elimination of the Ho Chi Minh trail — it was simply rinse with water. The first test of silver iodide in the Plateau area Boloven Valley Si Kong was a success: Treat cloud crossed the border of Vietnam and the U.S. Special Forces camp in four hours 23 inches of rain fell. The operation Popeye the rainy season in the spray rose from 30 to 45 days, and the number of daily precipitation has increased by a third. Aerial reconnaissance testified difficulty roading, soldiers reported that the soil has turned into a sea of mud.
It should be noted that in order to achieve these results, it took only three transport aircraft C-130 and two fighter cover for F-4C. In addition, despite the Pentagon's categorical denials, many experts believe that the project was the cause of Popeye catastrophic flooding in North Vietnam, which occurred in 1971 and involved more than 10% of the country.
It should be noted that the political difficulties did not stop the U.S. military. A possible international condemnation climate manipulation of the Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara years, replied that such statements in the past been used to prevent military activities in the interests of national security of the U.S., that is, it is only words detractors who want to prevent the Americans to protect their interests. We note that the Government of Laos (over this country spraying silver iodide), was not even notified about the experiments with the climate. With the departure of the Americans from Vietnam over tropical typhoons experiments did not stop: in 1980 it has been doing for Soviet aircraft.
At present, the use of modern and more sophisticated reagents that can induce precipitation. Thus, the powder Dyn-O-Gel of Dyn-O-Mat is able to absorb a lot of moisture (in two thousand times its weight) to become sticky gel. Unfortunately, the powder experiments failed to prevent hurricanes rainfall in the emerging tornado caused the fluctuations of wind speed at a few meters per second. But Dyn-O-Gel is able to generate strong rains, flooding some areas and causing severe drought in others. Obviously, this requires a lot of powder, if you want to shed 2 cm of rain on an area of 1 square. kilometers (20 thousand tons of water), you need to apply 10 tons of powder. That is, the elimination of the hurricane 20 × 20 km will need about 38 tons of powder. This is a staggering figure: heavy transport aircraft C-5A lifting capacity of 100 tonnes will have a short time to 377 flights, which is practically impossible, even with the American fleet and budget.
However, it should be stated that the creation of a local drought or heavy rains may, in fact, this can be done secretly or from a neighboring state. Thus, the enemy endured severe economic damage or impossible agriculture in the border regions. The problem is compounded by the fact that prior to the manipulation of the sediment is all vulnerable countries, particularly such as China, where the vast majority of food is grown in a few relatively small areas provinces.
And though the reality of the "subversive" materials like spray silver iodide, Dyn-O-Gel or almost imperceptible nanopowder is questionable, no significant obstacles, except for political will for this. Theoretically, any plane flying over the territory of a sovereign state, is able to influence the climate (spray equipment unnoticed transit non-stop flights are not checked) and to detect the fact spraying extremely difficult.
Currently, reliable data on the use of this kind of climate of weapons there but surgery Popeye, declassified American journalist idle. However, the scandal over the possible use of agents that provoke precipitation, occasionally happen: thousands of farmers from the arid regions around the world stare at the sky and occasionally see suspicious traces the wake of the aircraft.
Damage to the economy and the armed forces of the enemy may be applied not only rain, but high winds and powerful. Strong wind destroys infrastructure, making it impossible to use the army aviation, complicates the use of tactical missiles and hampers the efforts of ground forces. But can a hurricane be the first stage, for example, the invasion of the coast of a hostile state?
American scholar Moshe Alamar (Moshe Alamaro) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology says that there are technologies control hurricanes. The bottom line is artificially controlling the temperature in different parts of the incipient tornado. Motion control is targeted by heating or cooling of certain areas by seeding with soot, water evaporation, microwave irradiation, and the laser podobnogo.Po the scientist, a great way to affect the wind will be a great ship, equipped with two dozen jets that create a powerful updraft air. In just a few hours of operation begin to form a tornado, and it obediently following the vessel. In practice, to equip the ship such "tornadogeneratorom" is simple.
Recent events in Japan and the powerful tsunami in Indonesia in 2004 raise questions: can cause such catastrophic events artificially? 10 years ago was made public secret U.S. project Project Seal (1944-1945 years). This military program under the direction of Professor Thomas Leech (Thomas Leech) assumed explosion on the sea floor a large quantity of explosives, which must have caused a local tsunami, washing away buildings along the coast of the enemy.
Low power testing conducted in the Pacific Ocean, near the peninsula Vangaparaoa (New Zealand). The subjects considered them successful, but still do not know what actually ended the project. Later also conducted numerous sea trials of powerful nuclear bombs, which are more suitable for the creation of giant waves. There is evidence that most of Thomas Leach planned to go to the site of the nuclear tests at Bikini Atoll in order to gather information useful for tsunami-bomb project. As far as we know, he is in these trials did not participate.
But back to today's events, and ask whether it is possible to link the recent devastating tsunami tsunami using atomic-bombs? In practice it turns out that to prove the fact of the underwater nuclear explosion, which also takes place against the background of a strong earthquake is extremely difficult, and the charge of murder of tens of thousands of people need serious evidence.
It should also be said that the developed countries that are vulnerable to tsunami-bombs, not too many, and among them the United Kingdom, and Japan. But the most vulnerable U.S..
Blow from the ionosphere
Ionosphere is the part of Earth's upper atmosphere, located at an altitude of 50 km. It contains a large number of ions and free electrons, which protect us from cosmic radiation. The influence of the ionosphere on the Earth's climate is not fully understood, but it is expected to significantly.
The impact on the ionosphere to create destructive natural phenomena is the most controversial and most discussed part of the history of geophysical weapons.
Debate compounded by the impact of two instruments on the ionosphere are well known: high Russian SURA transmitter and a similar, but more complex major U.S. HAARP.
Initially, the two systems were built as test benches for exploring the impact of the ionosphere to disrupt radio communications, intercepting ballistic missiles and other aircraft. Installations of HAARP and SURA with high-frequency radiation can heat a certain area of the ionosphere and create a plasmoid — plasma cluster, consisting of magnetic fields and plasma.
Plasmoid has great energy, he has the potential to destroy the electronics and reflect radio waves. Thus, with plants such as HAARP can create a gigantic radiolinzu reflecting radio beam in the desired direction, or vice versa — absorbing it.
Actual installation can project electromagnetic radiation in any part of the planet. The radiation power is a mystery. It is believed that the HAARP installation in Alaska is capable of delivering up to 3.6 MW, and SURA — 750 kW. However, it is believed that the United States built a similar installations in other regions of Australia, Greenland, Norway and Asia.
Of rumors and myths about HAARP set. Fans of conspiracy theories believe that the installation can cause earthquakes, radiating a kind of "resonance" waves that trigger shifts of the crust. There are opinions that HAARP radiation can even cause panic and insanity of thousands of people. As the "examples" are numerous earthquakes in different parts of the world, people's uprisings and military coups. Write a book about how the United States and the Soviet Union (and later Russia) exchanged "geophysical blows" and that climate war continues to this day. But all the "evidence", supported by photographs of unusual clouds, large hail, lightning and strange colored rains usually explained routine atmospheric phenomena or the result of industrial activity.
Resolve the dispute, whether HAARP and SURA weapon can answer the question: can these high frequency low energy emitters start any severe natural disasters? Most scientists studying atmospheric phenomena, to doubt it. Just remember that the sun every day down on the ionosphere by orders of more energy, and atomic explosions per second sent to the power of the earth's crust, not comparable with radiation or thousands of antennas HAARP.
Numerous experiments conducted at the Arecibo Ionospheric heaters and other plants have shown that you can not cause long-term changes in the ionosphere — all disturbances made by man, fade in a few seconds or minutes.
In addition, the heating of the ionosphere is not possible during the day, because due to solar ultraviolet radiation D-region of the ionosphere (60-90 km) absorbs radio waves used by HAARP.
Of course, we can not exclude the use of military installations such as HAARP and SURA, possibly, the military are working on promising technologies that can be used for heating of the ionosphere electronic warfare, disabling satellites, ballistic missile warheads, as well as the-horizon communications. But looks doubtful involvement of modern devices with energy even if it is in the tens of megawatts to the earthquakes and tsunami that release thousands of gigawatt every second. In the long term heating of the ionosphere by high-frequency super-powered transmitters can be used as a geophysical weapon, for example, as a way of weakening of the ozone layer over enemy territory or heating of the atmosphere in order to influence the processes of nature. This requires accurate modeling of the Earth's atmosphere in real time and the vast energy resources.
Speculations about the geophysical weapon rarely accompanied by demonstration of facts. This is natural — its essence in stealth. Management of natural disasters becomes meaningless if it attracts the world's attention — in this case it is easier to manage economic pressure and precision strikes.
At the peak of the active work on creation of geophysical weapons in 1977 signed the UN Convention "On the Prohibition of Military or any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques." Its purpose is to prevent the use of the environment as a weapon of war, for example, provoking storms, tidal waves, etc. This document was signed by the leading countries of the world and puts geophysical weapons on a par with nuclear.
The use of large-scale geophysical strikes now will not only condemnation of the international community, but also serious response comparable to the response to a nuclear attack. This suggests that the "strategic" geophysical weapon, which could lead to such disasters as hurricane "Katrina" in 2005, and drought in Russia in 2010, or does not apply, or there is a global conspiracy of dozens of countries, including and to the detriment of their own interests.
Last seen as highly unlikely.
However, the use of geophysical weapons in a limited area is not only possible, but inevitable. The U.S. military has not abandoned the idea of the weather changes in the local theaters. Moreover, the technologies will work out in 2025. Tactical advantages include creating low cloud covering the aircraft from ground observation, veil covering the ground forces, and so on.
Projects technologies changing climate were "pull the shade" generous military funding. It is hoped that people do not lose their right to sunlight, heat, water, and air.
Michael Levkevich / CNews