Scientists have claimed — should not be on the ice north of the Transbaikal, V.S.Preobrazhensky finds them in the second half of the 20th century, and not one, but almost fifty! Scholars said: Kodar Mountains — an ancient crown of the earth, never flooded seas. Suddenly, on the mountain tops a huge deposit of coal — anthracite.
And with that mountain Kodar, Kalar Udokan — the latest orogen the birth of Lake Baikal. Young mountains are often made up of ancient Archean rocks, along with a pretty young sedimentary rocks found ancient peneplain prapoverhnost planet. (Smoothed ancient mountains, flat surface). Some foreign and Russian scientists believe that the district Syni-Namarakita particularly sensitive area of the Earth where natural disasters are possible planetary character. A powerful earthquake of 1957: in the Lake Namarakit, the epicenter of a crack length of over ten kilometers wide in places up to 7 m, a new New Namarakit Lake (Lake of the local population failure).
This plot of land not deserve fame Bermuda Triangle and other similar places because almost deserted.
African desert, transferred to North
Natural monument Charskaya desert (Tract Chara Sands) — a vast array of loose sand, with dunes on the background of snowy mountains and blue icing, springs, lakes and oases with traces of ancient civilizations … Chara Sands found on ancient man with a workshop for making stone tools. Arrowheads and spears made of jade and flint, which, however, did not in the closest vicinity of the desert … Jade — Vitim and the river Vitim — more than 200 miles from the tract Chara Sands.
One of the monuments of nature — the lake near Nalegar Cuando and it grows in the relict plant rogulnik floating — chilim. Edible nut kernel like roasted chestnuts — it is starchy and slightly sweet.
In many parts of Russia during the excavation of the ancient Stone Age found it valuable to ancient human food plant. Chilim — a common plant for the middle band, and strangely enough, this is the place — in the north, Kalar, near the area. This may have further confirmation of our stay at sites of ancient man.
It's about our area visionary Ivan Yefremov after his expedition in 1935 on the northern Transbaikalia and Yakutia in "The Brook sublunary" wrote:
On smooth, steep walls of the cave by candlelight could see rough, huge images of animals taken or sharp strokes, or perfectly preserved colors — black and red. These drawings were done accurately and correctly and with amazing expressiveness. In the flickering light of a candle, they seemed alive …… We find new pictures. Here hyenas with sloping back, giraffe, zebra striped. Africa in the heart of the chill frigid Siberian mountains! …… Going further, we found two niches filled with elephant tusks. There were assembled especially large, up to four meters in length. Folded stacked like firewood, they glistened under the fire of a candle to its smooth surface of black and yellow. "
Such lines have appeared at the inquisitive scientist and science fiction writer after visiting Char sublunary and its surroundings. We do not know at the expense of African elephants and skeletons and tusks of mammoths, the locals found repeatedly, as the woolly rhinoceros bones. Tourists often take their routes fossilized remains of ancient plants, found throughout the river basin Apsat and other places.
Another celebrity — stone Charoite. Named after the place of discovery — the middle reaches of the river Chara, on the border with Yakutia Kalar district. Fibrous crystals of the mineral create unique patterns, often with a silky or pearly luster. With its unique, bright purple color and a rare, even for the gems, the beauty, Charoite quickly gained worldwide recognition.
Charoite is one of the most beautiful but, unfortunately, the rarest gems on the planet.
This is — a new mineral, discovered by Russian scientists in 1964, the only one of its kind on Earth. The only deposit in the world of this unique gem is located in the valley of Chara. This strange purple stone could be formed only in these mountains. Why here and not anywhere else? ..
It is estimated that one person on Earth to have to 0.0016 grams charoite, its reserves are low, each year it becomes harder to find and buy. Limit (due to protection from premature development of the deposit) on the extraction of charoite established by the Government of the Republic of Sakha-Yakutia is 100 tons per year, so the demand for stone far exceeds supply.
In our region, presents all the geological history of the earth from the Archaean to Holocene. Only known in Transbaikalia unique and mysterious "Udokan biota", presented remnants of the first in the world of soft coral-Udokan, silhouettes segmentovannyh talakaniel worms, various signs of crawling, casts pileus, etc., organogenic nature is fiercely disputed by some both Russian and foreign colleagues. It's all about the absolute age of Udokan Series that holds "Udokan biota", which is defined within 1.8 — 2 billion years. The planet is not yet known remains of animals in the sediments with age. The problem of "Udokan biota" has long gone beyond the Baikal region and Russia as well as affect the time and place of occurrence of the first soft-bodied animals on the planet.
Russian Paleontological Society offers education monuments of nature at the global level "Geological Park Udokan". Included are 11 and 15 stratigraphic paleontological sites at the global level, 8 and 17 stratigraphic paleontological monuments federal level; 100 mineralogical, petrographic, ore, tectonic, geomorphological, permafrost, hydrological, historical mining and geological monuments, landscape, botanical and zoological monuments.
Strange fish char-davatchan — endemic Northern Transbaikalia. Shrouded in mystery search and diamond Ollongdo Tocco. Lost narrow gauge (Pre-war? Stalin era?) Near Lake Leprindo. In the old descriptions of forest managers, it is, in the new — no. Who hides it from the human eye?Crater Chepe, Caldera Aku, slag cones and rolled them into logs and lava Chepe a volcanic area of 80 km;
The miraculous healing power of local sources of the aborigines of this place Evenki and Yakut long legendary. Thermal springs are popular health resort and bamovtsev and for current residents. The scientists confirmed the miraculous power of these waters, given the appreciation of mineral sources and guidelines for creating on their basis spa resorts … Complexes not erected, but the path to healing sources are paths.
The Hot Key
The results of the hydrogeological studies show that in Kalar district as primary objects of practical development of mineral waters for medicinal purposes can serve as a source of nitrogen term on the left bank of the river Chara (source Upper Charsky or Hot Key). In the northern part of the Char valley, where the river Chara almost comes close to the mountains Kodar, comes to the surface hot spring. People call it Char hospital. From the village. Chara source is located 70 km north-east, and from the new station to the source Chara some 100 km along the river. Evenki village of Chapo-Oglo to source 25-30 km. Source is located on the left bank of the river, 600 meters from the river bed at absolute elevation 660 meters. The largest group of the hot water enclosed wooden frame, it is adjacent to a small house with a private bathroom. Winter cabin by hot vapor accumulates key dense lace frosting. The water is clean, clear, with a faint odor of hydrogen sulphide and nitrate. Source contains a large amount of minerals: chloride, sodium sulfate, sodium, magnesium, and iron. The presence of silica and a small water hardness increases healing qualities. Source vicinity covered with pine and larch forest, up the slope increases elfin cedar. On the lake there is a unique natural complex of depression mixed spruce-birch forest with grass poplar, ash and cherry, with an undergrowth of spirea, hawthorn, honeysuckle, wild rose. On the banks of the lake grows a lot of blueberries. For a long time he lived here Sharoglazov Ivan — a veteran of war and labor, a lover of nature, as it is written on the memorial tablet, which is near the former home. He maintained order here, Full Tilt offers. But he was not — Ivan died in 1985, and there he was buried. In the forest, a little apart from the house. His grave is located. On the medical properties Upper Chara water source is very close to the water resort Pitatelevskogo in Buryatia. Its waters can treat diseases of the musculoskeletal system, peripheral nervous system, gynecological and skin diseases.
Hot spring Luktur
Hot spring Luktur — the only source, which can be reached by car. It is located 12 km from Novaya Chara. The content of hydrogen sulfide source. The area where the source is located, equipped and is privately owned. There is a recreation room with pool tables and tables, in a separate building houses a sauna and swimming pool, outdoor pools, small mini — fountains.
Volcanic Hot Springs area
Purelagsky hot springis part of the terms of nitrogen (Pisarsky, 1967) and is associated with a strong fault zone. Multiple ascending stream of hot water merge into a single stream with a total flow rate of 10.8 l / s. water temperature in different streams varies from 35.5 o to 41o C. The mineral water was sampled 09/08/66 refers to Goryachinskii tipu.Iz micro water Purelaga discovered iron (0.3 mg / L), lithium, strontium, titanium, Boron (hundredths or thousandths of a mg / L). In the composition of the dissolved gases dominated nitrogen (94%). The whole meadow is filled with this hot, freezing cold in any water. In winter, the cold hot spring can be determined from a distance by frosted trees. Must adhere to the following rules: in any case, do not wash with soap and water at the source, do not wash, to maintain its purity and cleanliness of the surrounding areas. Mineral Spring Syni — Water is a natural monument magnesium hydrogen carbonate-sodium-calcium-rich silica, contains many minerals and a lot of carbon dioxide. Source associated with volcanism Holocene. Appointment of medical-health. Mineral waters come in both sides of the valley and in the mainstream of the river. At the station exit revealed a young fault. The total production rate of this group of sources of 3.5-4 l / s. water temperature of 15.5-16oS air temperature 20.5 ° C (08/09/66 g). High gas saturation of water has led to the presence of mineral deposits, forming numerous travertine cones up to 5-6 m in diameter. V.I.Kolesnikov, first described by the source in 1961, and G.I.Klimov who examined them in 1965, have a higher water temperature — 18O-23o C. From the trace elements found in water (mg / l): iron (21), Br (7), iodine (0.6), F (2), lithium (7), strontium (0.1), manganese and boron (hundredths of a mg / L). Gas composition of water (Mishina, Klimov, 1969) is provided for carbon dioxide (99,0-99,9% by volume), the nitrogen content of 0.1-1%, argon — 0,05-0,02%. Attitude Ar40/Ar36 equal 305, the concentration of radiogenic argon (as a percentage) — 3. Established the presence of hydrogen sulfide (2.4 mg / L). Carbonates, siliceous, bicarbonate water subthermal Syni not have direct counterparts, but can be conventionally referred to Shumak type. Travertine hot spring is located in the basin of the river near the volcano Eymnah Chepe in Kalar district. In composition, the water belongs to the sodium hydrogen carbonate. Water contains a lot of silica. Mineralization is high, the water temperature up to 19oS. The main gas — carbon dioxide.
Travertine sourcelike Catherine (resort Borjomi). Represents spa interest. Dams hot spring is located in the basin Eymnah (vault Udokan). The composition of water hydrocarbon-sodium 1. The main component is carbon dioxide. Mineralization is high. Specific component — silicic acid. Source temperature to 23o. The dam water source like the Catherine (resort Borjomi). Curative medical appointment.
Mineral Spring Golden Cascade paspolozhen on the side of a volcano Chepe. Stack stepped ledges, it lays golden yellow ocher of up to 1 meter. In sunny weather, the water in the background gives the impression of golden ocher cascade. The source is carbonate basis, yield 20-25 l / s. Appointment of scientific, recreational, aesthetic.
Kalar geyser is nerehodnym link between active volcanoes and hot springs, a characteristic sign of recent volcanic activity is the discovery in northern Transbaikalia hot spring field. Opening it happened recently. Officer Chita Institute of Natural Resources of the USSR F.M.Stupak heard from old-timers, the Evenki, high in the mountains that has Udokan eymnahi (pits) with warm thermal water, a lot of hot springs, and some are beaten out of the ground fountains. In the summer of 1983 Fedor Maksimovic with great difficulty made his way to this remote area of the ridge and made a surprising discovery. As he says, in the upper stream sour key, one of the tributaries of the Eymnah, is an extinct volcano whose lava flows once more flooded the old valley of the stream. His current Valley is a deep canyon that cuts through the lava flows. The left bank of the stream — steeply inclined to the bed of his travertine (from calcareous tuffs) terrace. Near the water's edge along the terrace seen numerous exits highly carbonated mineral waters, and in the valley to the sense of smell of hydrogen sulfide. Among others there are two unique to Udokan source. Travertine bath is on top of a small steep-sided dome at the top of the size of two to three meters. At its center is a natural bath half a meter on the meter size, filled with muddy water with a temperature of 180 C. The depth of the bath with two feet. Water quietly merges all around the tub. But even more surprising phenomenon in a hundred meters above the river, right in the stream bed, on his jet goes low, about 20 cm travertine cone. At the top of the four holes the size of about an inch, of which periodically, every 2-3 seconds, with the noise emitted by a half to two meters of heavily saturated with gas and mineral water. Until now it was thought that there is only the geysers in Iceland, the U.S., New Zealand and the Kamchatka Peninsula. Opening Valley of Geysers in Kamchatka in 1941 the whole sensation. Is of great interest and Kalar geyser on Udokan. Moreover, it is unique in its kind, the other known geysers different petite size and water temperature
The ancient abandoned settlements in Syulbana, Purelaga, Namarakita-who lived there and why leave?;'s Stalinist "serpatin" with a tractor-through hole through the mountain in the Marble Valley) … 1966 … In Kalar Ridge nuclear explosion planned for the opening of the copper deposit. Everything is ready, the galleries a ride layout explosive device, but Providence hangs up explosion.
Besides the fact that the North Baikal holds many secrets and mysteries, in the tourist district of Kalar on unique. It will be interesting and tourist-athlete, and just the traveler.
Kalar district — The northernmost and largest in the Chita region, the area of 56.8 thousand square kilometers At its highest point in the Transbaikal area (peak BAM, 3073 m) and the highest point of the Baikal-Amur Mainline (1316.93 meters), the deepest water (lake Nichatka), the only desert in the Transbaikal and glaciers, Chita cold pole (mine named XI years October) and pole snow (Chin). In this land, the three largest in the range (Kodarsky, Udokan and Kalar), the largest rivers, including Kalar, who gave the name of the territory. In Chita scale it is the Evenki and most of Yakutsk. Not only in the region but also in Russia as a whole, is unlikely to find an area that would have the most unique and recruitment, and the content of the register of minerals. For many years the area was considered a geological mecca.
In a very popular tourist destination Kodar range is the highest point of the Transbaikal — BAM peak (3072 m), peaks climbing routes up to 6 A of complexity in rock class, passes to 3 A k.sl. There are water routes k.sl. 3.4, and on maloraskhodnyh rivers — to 5 k.sl. Skiers and peshehodniki can make up to 6 trips here k.sl. inclusive.
At Kodari ok.40 glaciers with a total area 19 sq. m. km. Length of the series of glaciers and more than 3 km. The existence of these glaciers long refused to believe (Medium unsuitable climate). It was only in 1958 they were "legalized" and describes the expedition of the USSR led V.S.Preobrazhenskogo. But even now we can not find in the literature data on the exact number of glaciers, for aerial survey does not allow accurate determination of the glaciers pereletovavshih snowfields. The tourists have the opportunity to research to determine the exact number of glaciers Kodar.
Ice area Kodar range planned as a national park of world importance. Only the collapse of the former Soviet Union did not give this to happen.
Traces of ancient glaciers are found everywhere. In the past glaciers were advancing and retreating repeatedly, traces of their activities overlapped, creating a bizarre intertwining forms. Complexity of the relief is not only connected with the usual mountain-building processes, but also with the recent tectonic disturbances. Who visited Kodari, does not confuse it with other mountain regions, even in photographs.
Lakes, marshes, mountain streams, waterfalls, wild untouched taiga — all this can be found at Kodari in unexpected combinations. Spectacular gorge to the north of the Trans-Baikal, located along the faults of the crust. Originating more than a huge pile height iconic Rock of Gibraltar, reaching 530 meters from the base.
In the territory Chara basin noted more than 3 thousand lakes. In Kalar district are seemingly incompatible zones: mountain taiga, mountain tundra and forest-tundra. Real desert with dunes (Chara Sands), and around the snow-covered mountains, rivers with ice, not melting until mid-summer, the swamp. Many lakes, and hot springs.
Very interesting ridges and Kalar Udokan (Previously they were combined into one — Udokan). Volcanic area in Kalar ridge — a unique creation of nature. Here are 15 extinct, but quite young, volcanic they ceased to operate only 2000 years ago. Volcanoes have the most unusual colors (yellow, red, gray), Aku remarkable volcano with a lake in the crater. The rivers run into the lava canyons, breaking through them extraordinarily beautiful waterfalls.
Winter Kodar Kalar and Udokan not less attractive. Vast expanses of sparkling snow, frozen waterfalls, crystal mountain air frosts make it icy kingdom.
River and lake Kalar district excellent fishing. Place completely deserted — per person for more than five square kilometers Although, if someone more attractive civilization — there are some quite modern towns with three-story stations, tall buildings, paved streets. This new station Chara Ikab'ya and Kuanda the famous Baikal-Amur Railway (now East Siberian g / d). The same desert a few kilometers from the village of Char (district center) and N.Chara station. There is a close and hot springs, which can be reached by car. And motor vehicles may be driven far enough into the mountains — along the river from the Middle Sakukan s.Chara, but already there to start the route of any complexity. And in general with the arrival of the BAM in Kalar district approach to the mountains has never been easier.
Interesting tourist facilities — abandoned camp items Bor labor camp. There were 10 in Kalar district. One lagpunktov — Marble Valley (Marble key) — is widely known in the country, thanks to the publication of it in "Komsomolskaya Pravda". There, in the years 1949-1951 was conducted extraction, primary processing and sending uranium to the mainland — in "Chelyabinsk-40." That land has given the country the first Kalar Transbaikalia uranium, which, in particular, has been used in the production of the first Soviet nuclear device.
The territory of Kalar district goes Chita section of BAM. Here, near the junction st.Kuanda Balbuhta September 29, 1984 met East and West, and there was a working dock BAM, October 1, 1984 at st.Kuanda passed celebration of the laying "golden link" BAM. In those days, the little Cuando attracted the attention of the Soviet Union, our BAM and its "gold" said dock in the world.
Indigenous people — Evenki — Reindeer herders, friendly and hospitable. Unlike many other popular tourist areas of the former USSR (the Caucasus, Central Asia), it is very calm. The district has no ethnic tensions. Since Bamovskaya times, people have learned to live in harmony, well welcome visitors.
There are many more interesting things to talk about Northern Transbaikalia, but you have to see …