Annual losses due to Germany as a result of corruption, according to the Federal Office for criminal cases, is about eight billion euros. Although the share of economic crime is not more than one and a half percent of the total number of violations of the law, they account for more than half of the total damage, which is the state.
Germany in World Ranking of corruption, which is Transparency International, 14-15 consistently ranked among the leaders. But the people of Germany that does not help: the German corruption has its own characteristics, and they are manifested in the explicit separation of bribery as an element of business relationships and purely bureaucratic love of bribes.
The first fighter with bribes in the German state of Prussia said Frederick William I, who almost 300 years ago, in February 1713, proclaimed not only devotion to duty, but also thrift new ideology of the state. Bribery has become the most serious crime. In the towns were established gallows on which the hanged deserters and bribes. The country had to learn to live within our means. King forced officials to protect the power of the people's worthless. Since then, frugality is an integral feature of the German national character. The Protestant ethic that helped. Simple killer could count on a certain condescension, the killer, which took the purse — never.
Over time, the anti-corruption regulation of overgrown bureaucratic laws that reduced the brutal oppression of the inevitable punishment. There was a certain selectivity. It manifested itself most clearly in the Nazi period, when, despite the severity of the laws, the Fuhrer himself decided who the thief is and who is not. A tip of the Reich stole, as we know, in large quantities.
Of all the German bureaucratic brethren often in the past twenty years across on bribery employees of the aliens who were responsible for issuing residence permits. Chinese and Vietnamese bosses forked out only a small group of responsible officials in Berlin, a total of more than two million euros.
Generously take and consular services abroad. It was they who in the 1990s organized a mass exodus of Ukrainian men on the Spanish-Portuguese-Italian civil construction and agricultural work, and women — in brothels or in the best case workers. To obtain a visa, it was enough mythical insurance from no less mythical company, lured the German Foreign Ministry. The scandal is only partially touched the then Minister of Foreign Affairs of Germany, Joschka Fischer, who thought up the freedom of movement of bureaucratic formalities. The correspondent of "Echo" was himself a witness to how the Embassy of Germany in Kiev on four pillars approached Carpathian boys and passport being sacks. As a result, about three million "nezalezhentsev" was on the warm south-west Europe.
Not so long ago, almost the same thing happened with immigrants from Egypt, as well as a number of countries in Latin America and the Balkans. Here, however, in all quickly accused themselves of civilian employees, as if they stamped visa.
In the mid-1990s in Berlin blossomed bribes to employees of housing companies. A large number of immigrants from the former Soviet Union needed an apartment. As a result, three-bedroom apartment for rent in a good area, which is usually paid by the state, was worth 15 to 25 thousand marks.
Today, cabinet officials often avoid direct contact of money, but prefer to act through nominees. So, for the last time it was opened by a dozen major frauds with social benefits. Employees of the employment exchanges for years subscribed benefits nominees, appropriating hundreds of thousands of euros. And despite the fact that payments have always had to go for three signatures.
However, it's nothing compared with the real major corruption schemes. For example, in the middle of the same 1990 was created by the Berlin bank holding company. The head of the supervisory board was a local Christian Democratic party chairman Klaus Landowski. The Federal State of Berlin, at the head of which there was one Landowsky Governing Mayor Eberhard Dipgen, gave a financial guarantee. The bank issued loans worth hundreds of millions a familiar company that promised to sanitize the prefab houses. The company burned through.
Offset the power of the earth holding a loss of 1.7 billion euros. From this shock city has not recovered to this day. Landowski said that wanted the best …
Vzyatkoemkim business is writing a research paper for a doctorate. Intermediaries for it takes from 20 to 50 thousand euros. They have a list of "buy" professors. Up to 20 percent of the doctoral thesis defended in exchange for bribes. It is not known whether paid former Defence Minister Karl-Theodor Guttenberg for his thesis, but it was full of plagiarism. And the minister was forced to leave.
Before 1994, the Criminal Code of Germany did not have any articles about corruption parliamentarians. The MPs have accepted it, but appointed by such obstacles that sit deputy of bribery is extremely difficult. However, here there is a different mechanism: the party instantly gets rid of the Mess in a corruption scandal deputy.
Until recently in the official financial statements of companies, especially those involved in foreign trade activities, there was a line Schmiergeld, a direct translation of "money for podmaslivaniya." This kind of relationship in business literally dug into the blood of managers.
At the time, senior officials of the company "Siemens" brought the black box office, which for the sake of obtaining advantageous orders for two decades, had paid bribes in the third world, attributing them to safely taxes. Up to 1.3 billion euros spent officials and managers of foreign companies in 32 countries, including Mexico, Argentina, Vietnam, France, Russia, and Turkey. In the case were more than a dozen major concern of managers, 230 middle managers were fired. However, the prison no one has sat down.
Accusations of corruption and put forward against the biggest German auto giant "Daimler". The U.S. Justice Department has accused its leaders that it is in the years 1998-2008 in transactions bribed the power structures of a number of countries and thus displaced the American competitors from the market. Only a settlement agreement with the U.S. Justice Department and a fine of 185 million euros were able to save from Daimler formal charges of bribing officials in 22 countries. Amount of bribes which export division of concern Daimler Export and Trade Finance GmbH gave contracts for the purchase of trucks and buses, reached $ 56 million.
In the "misuse of funds" has been convicted and a range of Volkswagen, who bribed members of the Works Council, which is the most active employees, which play a very important role in the enterprise.
In general, give the "greyhound puppies" at local magnates made. The forms of bribes may be different — in the form of low cost houses, discounts on airfare, almost free stay in expensive hotels, golf membership clubs, school fees for children. The aim is one — to transform the one who gives, in his own "agent of influence."
In Germany, a judge, a police officer or a military doctor, a school teacher or a high school teacher will never take money for leniency in violation of rules of the road, phony certificate or school mark. I'm just not profitable to take "the little things": a possible retribution for sin will be much more painful than the gain from the "extra" euro "in an envelope." "You have to give a lot, then he will take" — this unforgettable phrase from the movie "Beware of the Car" is very accurate in the spirit of th
e German system of bureaucratic corruption. Nevertheless and bribes are rare. Why?
An official in Germany — like the state, and it is, as long as he serves faithfully, gives him a serious social guarantees. He does not pay contributions to the pension fund — for him it is the government doing so by entering the rest he gets no rent — index-linked savings for their work, and firmly established the real retirement depending on years of service and his rank. That is why, by the way, on the resorts of the world are so many elderly Germans: retirement of some of them can reach seven thousand euros a month.
Moreover, the control efforts. For example, the official involved in the accrual of benefits, and other activities related to the expenditure of social media, no longer serves a continually same contingent beneficiaries. Yes, and co-workers look after: just that — bang. By the way, the one who committed the offense is official, but gave details of more serious misconduct, gets leniency.
To this can be added and serious criminal sentences for bribery. And in some federal states have begun to enter the so-called "corrupt Registry". Firms and individuals listed there for a while deprived of the right to participate in tenders for public procurement.
A few years ago, the president of the Federal Central Ernst Welteke spent with his family in the New Year's holiday suites Berlin hotel "Adlon". He was invited by one of the private banks. When this fact became known to the public, the president in a matter of days, was forced to resign. A Christian Wulff was not president of the bank, and the whole country. And just let himself in 2010 to take a loan on favorable terms. The rest is known: there is no longer a president in Germany.