Author — Vadim Mahora
In Krasnoyarsk, there are 3 heat and power plant, the total electric power of which only 1,146 MW (compared to only one our
In this post, in addition to technical information about KrasTETs-3, I want to show the principle of almost any combined heat and power.
1. Three chimneys, the height of the highest of them 275 meters, the second highest — 180m
2. The installed electric capacity of the Krasnoyarsk CHP-3208 MW and the installed thermal capacity of 631.5 Gcal / h
Simplistic principle of operation of the CP can be described as follows:
It all starts with the fuel. In the role of consumption in various power plants may make coal, gas, peat, oil shale. In our case it is the brown coal of B2 with the cut of Borodino, located 162 km from the station. Coal is brought in by rail. Part of it is stored, the other part is on the conveyors in the unit, where the very first coal is crushed to dust and then is fed into the combustion chamber — steam boiler.
3. Car dumper, by which coal is poured into the hopper
5. Here the coal is crushed and falls into the "furnace"
Steam boiler — a unit for the production of steam at a pressure above atmospheric of continuously incoming feedwater therein. This happens expense of heat released during combustion. Boiler itself looks pretty impressive. On KrasTETs-3 regulate height of 78 meters (26-storey building), and it weighs more than 7,000 tons.
6. Steam boiler of the brand E-670, produced in Taganrog. Boiler capacity 670 tons of steam per hour
I borrowed from a site energoworld.ru simplified diagram of a steam boiler plant to make you understand its structure:
1 — combustion chamber (burner), 2 — horizontal flue, 3 — convective mine, 4 — Furnace screens, 5 — ceiling screens, 6 — downpipes, 7 — drum, 8 — radiation-convective superheater 9 — convective superheater, 10 — water economizer, 11 — air heater, 12 — The fan, 13 — lower collectors screens, 14 — slag chest, 15 — Cold crown, 16 — burner. The diagram does not show an ash collector and exhauster.
7. Top view
10. Clearly shows the boiler drum. The drum is a cylindrical horizontal vessel having a volume of water and steam, which are separated by a surface known as the mirror of evaporation.
Due to the large steam boiler has developed a heating surface, as flash and superheater. The furnace had a prismatic, rectangular with natural circulation.
A few words about the principle of operation of the boiler:
In the drum, passing through an economizer, feedwater enters at drain pipes down into the lower headers of the screens pipes, these pipes by water rises and is thus heated as the flame burns in the furnace. The water turns to steam-water mixture, some of it gets into outrigger cyclones and other part of the back drum. And there, and there occurs separation of the mixture of water and steam. The steam goes into the steam heaters and water reiterates its way.
11. The cooled flue gases (about 130 degrees), out of the firebox in ESPs. In the electrostatic cleans emissions from ash, fly ash is removed the ash dump and the purified flue gases go into the atmosphere. Effective purification of flue gases is 99.7%.
In the photo are the most ESPs.
Passing through steam superheaters heated to 545 degrees and enters the turbine where it under pressure turbine rotor rotates, and accordingly, generating electricity. It should be noted that in condensing power plants (TPP) water treatment system is completely closed. All the steam passing through the turbine, is cooled and condensed. Again turned to the liquid state, water is reused. And in turbines CHP not all the steam enters the condenser. Was to select a pair — industrial (use hot steam to any areas) and district heating (hot water supply network). This makes the CHP more economical, but it does have its drawbacks. A disadvantage of thermal power plants is that they must be built close to the end user. Laying of heating costs a lot of money.
12. At Krasnoyarsk CHP-3 is used once-through service water supply system, it eliminates the use of cooling towers. That is, the water to cool the condenser and the use of the boiler taking directly from the Yenisei River, but not before it is cleaned and desalination. After use, the water returns through the channel back to the Yenisei River, passing the scattering system of production (mixing hot water with cold, in order to reduce thermal pollution of the river)
I hope I have been able to clearly describe the principle of the CHP. Now a little about the KrasTETs-3.
Construction of the plant began back in 1981, but, as we have in Russia is due to the dismantling of the USSR and in time of crisis to build a thermal power station failed. From 1992 to 2012, she worked as a boiler station — to heat water, but only learned how to produce electricity on March 1 last year.
Krasnoyarsk CHP-3 belongs to the Yenisei TGC-13. TEP employs about 560 people. Currently Krasnoyarsk CHP-3 as heat industrial and residential sector of the Soviet district of Krasnoyarsk — in particular neighborhoods "North", "Vzletka", "Basil" and "Innokent'yevskiy."
20. More on KrasTETs-3 has 4 hot water boilers
21. Peephole in the furnace
23. This photo shot from the roof unit. Large pipe has a height of 180m, the one that is less — starting tube boiler.
25. As a distributor for KrasTETs-3 is used indoor switchgear gas-insulated switchgear (ZRUE) at 220 kV.
26. Inside the building
28. A general view of the switchgear
29. That's all. Thank you for your attention