The images of the goddesses of fate are often associated with the image of yarn, spinning wheels, spindles. In people, women needlewomen dealing with cloth and thread, also gives understanding the nature of things secret, and skillfully using their knowledge. With the thread work on all aspects of life: "what is the thread, so is life." The destiny of man is seen as the thread on the spinning wheel vypryadennaya deity, and then decorated (already by human hands) as a symbolic sewing magic knitting, weaving, etc. — To the designs of the future of the newborn, or to correct already predetermined fate. Deities can change the destiny of man in moments of ritual death, ie the initiation, marriage, rejection of the genus, etc.
The wheel was spinning the wheel of time (or understanding cyclical processes in nature was there just to explain by a rotating wheel) — birth, life and death, and the symbol of the circle signifies the sun, eternity, images of God and the world as a reference point. The wheel is symbolic and the 0 — a vicious circle, boundless, the beginning and the end, a symbol of the absolute. The patterns on the spinning wheel of human life associated with the mythical act of weaving the universe. In East Slavic culture center of the spinning wheel, which touched tow, often decorated with signs, symbols of the sun and the daily cycle. Spinning wheel — a life-thread spun, sun rolls across the sky.
Time mythology conceptualized as a specific objective element — the spinning wheel on the tow, the shuttle or the fabric on the machine gods (eg, unfortunately, "No Russian", but indicative: Penelope, taught by Athena, dissolve the weave of the day, thus delaying the election, t . suspend is time slows for human life). In some traditions, a certain period of time is called "yarn" ("woman's account on yarn").
If the thread (read — for a straight power / life / energy) is fastened a knot, it changes the desired flow. In some cases, the nodules on the threads can act as a talisman against disease and injury in the other — on the contrary, evidence of damage to the mouse (eg, labor). Knotting or twisting thread — similar takes effect on human life, knotting, knocking, or vice versa — is straight. By creating a product with a thread weave their wishes, promises and dreams. Skillful knitting knots in the thread to change life / event called nauznikami, and themselves witch knotted threads — nauzami.
Spellbound spun yarn for change (correction) of fate, that is, changing anything in the present and the future. However, sometimes to change the future, we must return to the past — in the ritual is performed weaving twists counterclockwise (ie, open the locking barriers spinner is in the flow of time). At this point, it creates a new message / wish, and weaves it into the fabric of reality materialized.
In the Christianized tradition of folk tales appear that God had created and taught weaving women (or rather, ancestress Eve) to spin.
The importance of human life, spinning, and was reflected in the division of the huts on the "spinner" and "nepryahu (if the furnace was located at the entrance to the right of the door of her mouth was drawn to the light — chalet" spinner ", if the oven is placed on the left of the entrance — chalet" nepryaha ").
Spirits Spinning, weaving, embroidering
Mythical creatures like to do spinning and weaving, but most practical benefit that does not work. "From frights not wait yarn" — the saying goes. Folk memory preserved is naught more stories about "the end" spinning spirits: see spinning dummy — to death in the house, and when dummy rattles bobbins — be trouble. However, if the spinning wheel sits spirit (especially in the important days of the year, favorably disposed to the owners), the consequences are favorable — the spirit may "napryast" wealth, health, good luck.
More often than not spinning, the spirit of sentences and whispers a wish Charu yarn, household, livestock. In order to "play it safe" and tried not to leave needlework in a conspicuous place in time to finish the job, and, by and large, do not quarrel with the spirits.
In Spinning (knitting, braiding, weaving, sewing, embroidery) spirits are often recognizable deity predetermine the fate and future. There are different versions — "who was is primary." Some say that at first it was a lot of small gods and spirits, of which highlight the main gods. Someone said that it was the opposite, and the gods were few, and the functions assigned to them — a lot, and these functions are gradually fragmented, passing first the younger gods, and then the nature spirits. Others believe that the living world around, and all that is on earth is reflected in the "other world", and vice versa. In any case, the gods, spirits and people coexist.
Among the goddesses spinners best knownMokosh(Presumably with the word «mokos» — «spinning", but I find that connection failed, but found in the Sanskrit word mocsa — liberation, salvation of souls, mokshaka — break the link.) Other versions of the name — Ma-kosh means "Mother of lots" (in Sanskrit words found kac — bind, kac — «be visible, manifest").
Rozhanitsy, Goddess "predetermination" instead of yarn spun the fate of people, giving them happy or unhappy lot. One measures the virgin life, another cuts the thread of fate, the third, the elder, says the word destiny. (Cult rozhanits gradually merged with the cult of domestic spirits). Sometimes rozhanits correspond to "conspiracy spinners," localized on the mountain (rock on the river (sea) under the tree (on the pole), where "three girls … spun vypryadayut, patterns are gaining"
Similar functions carried the goddess of fateShareandNedolya(Srecha and Nesrecha).
Brownie(Or domozhiriha, feminine hypostasis houses), house keeper, the ancestor of the genus.
Mara(Ghost, ghost, hallucination, looking like a little, "zapechelnaya 'old), there is a moonlit night. Sometimes it takes the form pryalochnogo wheels, sometimes vomits yarn and tow, which is the specific symbol — (in the image of the goddess of death) Mara takes the soul leaving the body.
Fagot(Variations mara / wife brownie looks like a woman of any age with severe physical deformities, associated with the cult of the dead) likes to spin alone — sometimes helping a good housekeeper, and negligent harm.
Mermaids(Combines the popular imagination of all female nature spirits, as well as women who died an unnatural death) like to sew. In mermaid week they were left on the trees canvas, yarn, clothing.
"Forest wife"give people the balls "nondecreasing" thread.
Komokhov(Personification fever) — in addition to possession of different tools (cut with a knife, sharpening) also spins.
Paraskeva, after the arrival of Christianity in Rus Mokosh perceived function, became the patroness of weaving, spinning and homework. Her image, probably including the merged withBaba Sereda(It helps to spin and wash on canvas), UkrainianProne(Spinning, especially on Fridays, left tow).
Mythical spinner living in the "hut on kurey leg, spun on his heel … silk spinning, thread Sucitu long, spindle turns …" (as defined inBaba Yaga, or an old woman / witch). Spinner spindle spinning, spinning cabin, the thread is twisted into a ball — a ball that helps to overcome time and space hero who seeks his destiny.
Woman Otherworld, help someone in the world is human — using magical powers she animates woven / embroidered fabric, creating a harmony between worlds — the lower, upper and middle.
It is assumed that initially each day of the week was associated with a creature spinning, weaving, even the name "day" cognate with the verb "to weave" — "that which is woven" (s'tki). Months of the year are also encoded in the Russian "pryadelnoy" mystery "is a house in the 12 windows / In each box of 4 girls / Every girl in 7 spindles / Each spindle his name."
The appearance of spinning spirits confined to a specific time— In the "transitional" moments when worlds are close to each other, spinning is not domestic in nature, and fateful. Therefore, the "ordinary people" in this time it is impossible to touch the magic tool of creation web of life — women rest, and goddesses, spirits, and "knowing" spin, affecting human life and the universe. In the "watershed" time can not twist the rope, twist the thread reel balls, tie knots, weave, bend … People Unaware of the hidden connection of things (as above — so below), can easily destroy the delicate balance, allowing the forces of chaos to enter the "harmonization" of the world, bringing disharmony and asymmetry. Hence the horror stories of punished spinner, despising the ban — in their lives, or something breaks, or confused, or goes awry, skew or influence the weather or his family and having children, of course, in unfavorable terms. If the person who intervened in the process of "weaving nevovremya" realized that now comes under his hands something bad must cut to create a thing apart, in order to "restore the universe to its original state."
You can not spin in the days of solstice (winter — was associated with the cult of the dead, hence the custom to dress up, to come to each other's mummers and spin, sitting on the shelf, as if it were not for women, and frights, driving while talking on the fate of the younger generation), the mermaid week (the transition from spring to summer, the seventh week after Easter, when the rye blooms) on Fridays.
Yarn spinning ritual had on certain calendar dates:Introduction to the church of Our Lady (4 December), St. Andrew (13 December), New Year's Eve, St. Eudocia (March 1), St. Alexis (March 30), Wednesday 4th week of Lent, Maundy Thursday, Ivan Bathe or certain days of the week. In this case separately stipulated a) the time of day: before sunrise or during the day or night, and b) the place of spinning: on the threshold of the house, "on water" on the go, at the window, and c) the cast (women, old women or girls "nedorostki", often never to this point has not spun). It was necessary to ritual purity and respect the performers. Sometimes magical yarn spun left arm with torsion spindle "from themselves" (anti-clockwise).
Season of "spinning" and flax processing begins with the onset of winter (October). On the girls' get-togethers and zapryadkah (literally "new yarn"), women and girls were talking, dreaming, spinning (and the female magic requires the ability to dream — to create, nurture and give birth to a desired).
Thread vypryadennaya the day of administration to have healing powers. This is attributed, probably, with the Christian to believe that in this day, little Maria was introduced to the part of the church, where could enter once a year, only the high priest with sacrificial blood cleansing — ie miracle happened. On this day, "the church to break the silence of Scripture, revealing mysterious ways of the Lord" (take a word).
Established on Maundy Thursday and New Year's Eve yarn (or string) and put on "knowing" people on the wrist or waist the person who committed the bodily and spiritual purification (according to legends, bath, and is able to do), the favorable continuation of human life and protected from Witchcraft (take a word).
On the night before Christmas (winter solstice), when the borders of the worlds thinner, past-present-future are there, the programming was spun yarn.
Spinning ended March 26 (in style), by this time was supposed to be completed last yarn, or made "will not go for the future."
Embroidery, made on the eve of Passover, Ivanovo, and Peter's Matins (threshold days of the year), has a special magical powers. Clothing was established in the year meant a significant renovation and rebirth.
Material used in spinning— Mostly wool, linen, hemp, although sometimes in the course are chicken feathers (dummy and Mara) and hair farmers (Makosh). Using wool / feathers / hair spirits manipulate the focus of the life force of humans and animals, so these "threads" have a more powerful impact. Perfume-spinners themselves often can turn around tow, and then not just spun wool, and their hair — as a combination of life and magical force transmitted track. Simultaneously spinning a perfume, women know, to slander their job requirements.
Unlike ordinary mortals spirits still do their "work" deliberately, they exist on a subtle level — and see subtle weave — where they started, how to knit, you run out: so they "weave" flows as easily as for people thread.
To achieve the objectives not only used a different material for the fibers (wool, linen, silk), but different colors (red, white, rough, black), and a different number of threads (one, three, or more).
Method povyazyvaniya threads on the body can be correlated with different decorations: the neck is associated thread (or replaced later) necklace at hand — a bracelet on his finger — a ring at the waist — a belt.
Also important was the way to fix the threads on the body: tying or criss-cross.
The use of thread / tow / rope in ceremonies:
Secret, magical meaning of needlework was known not only to the gods, spirits, and "knowing" people, sorcerers, witches. In contrast to the common people, "who know" engaged in deliberate and purposeful manipulation of the tow, yarn, thread, rope and other attributes of needlework. These actions are reflected in divination and magic rites.
1. Spin "naopak '(reverse) the two strands — a bridegroom, the other — the bride, let them on a pan filled with water, and look: get together, sovyutsya — to be a wedding, and if diverge — no luck. Hence it can be a phrase "tie their fate."
2. In chastushka "thread break, I'm knitting / everything to look nice," observed the same idea — if the spinners can link tearing thread, fate was, living together can.
3. Guessing on the Trinity, when the water allowed thread (life-fate, destiny, death), and look — sink or float.
4. Linen yarn twine end sticks, stuck between the floorboards and set on fire. Which way torch bow, and from there to wait for the bridegroom. Option: note to fly the remains to dogorevshey Lucino tow — to the door — wait matchmakers, from the door — the shelf cuckoo.
5. Attribute of divination performed and articles of threads and yarn, for example, a belt. Time laid at the door of the church, and the first stepped was the "carrier name groom." For a girl as platted belt, thread becomes crucial (perhaps if she wanted to change the destiny, it was necessary to dissolve, cut the sash?).
6. Programming of young with thread, etc. The girl before the wedding went to the bath with Cleaver, holding the end of the belt. Before soar bride sorcerer bandaged the rest of the belt her right arm, right leg and chest, saying, "Feet to the legs, arms in hand, to the sternum — to the East." This ordinance is to "link" the young, that they go hand in hand, and did not differ much in love. (Interestingly, while men did not do anything like that?).
7. At weddings spun "yarn long life", linking the young "for a long and happy."
8. Time in the bath, put on by the bride, had a certain number of nodes. According to the number of nodes number of sons born.
9. By the number of nodes in the umbilical cord ligation counted how many children still bear a woman in labor.
10. Curl hair in the thread, committed while crossing the road witch wedding train modeled crossing the emerging family discord in it.
11. Newborn, which was first put in the crib, cradle okruchivaet (cradle) thread, spun with prayers (conspiracy) in the Boxing Day — that is, in the period of the goddess-spinners. The ends of the thread and then was removed from the cradle, tied in a single thread, and placed under the baby's head, thus promising him a long and happy life. (Prohibition rukodelnichanie in Svyatka here probably disturbed by the fact that the mother is not just spinning, weaving and Destiny's Child. At this point, it can either be equated with the goddess-spinner, or act as a conductor of the will).
12. In the cradle of the child placed spindle for a girl or onions for beating hair for boys, in a number of places to the cradle append spindle / tow / torch / scissors, thinking that these things distract nocturnal spirits of the child (because they often span more interesting).
13. Ceremony of "turning away." Looking for or wanting to return a lost / missing person / beast, runs (symbol of life) fasten a piece of canvas (as beings in general). Perhaps then tripped principle guiding thread of Ariadne in the Cretan labyrinth.
14. Thread-fate works in new home, the fate of the owners of the house was strongly associated with a new dwelling place, a ball of yarn thrown through the doorway, and then by seniority, holding the "guiding thread" into the house.
15. The rope acts as the image of the community (that woven of many threads — but actually is one.)
16. Rope — a road between worlds (often, however, the lower world than high).
17. Woven left hand thread on Maundy Thursday were considered "programmed destiny." In Egorov day (May 6) this thread with rag hung on the tree of wishes, and his plan was executed.
18. To the yarn is equal and human hair as the center of life force (soul). Death shirt embroidered hair in a shroud woven hair of the deceased — so the idea of embodied existence beyond the grave, and the subsequent recovery.
19. Woven fabrics (canvas, linen, especially decorated with "Fancy"), often associated with the road linking the worlds, and the dead ancestors and future descendants. The concept of "road", "cloth", "towel", "scarf" in mythology equivalent words "road" and "fate."
Please note that to find the "source material" is extremely difficult, quotes and conclusions are copied from book to book. Perhaps the greatest confidence (including working with sources) causes labor N. Krinichnaya. Russian mythology: The world of folklore. Moscow, 2004.
Also see: E. Shubin. Rituals: encrypted force thousands of years;
Guseva. Slavs and Aryans: the way of the gods, and words;
E. Starovoitova. Strands of my spinner, not lenisya …