In 1930 in the Far East had been deployed stunning building …
During the second world fame was the Atlantic Wall. Built on the orders of Hitler's fortifications stretched along the entire western coast of Europe, from Denmark to the border with Spain. This is a stunning building, comparable in size with the majestic wall of China and the Mannerheim line, shot 10's movies and many of the Atlantic Wall fortifications now converted into a museum. But on the other huge military installations, "Pacific shaft Stalin", virtually no one in the world knows. Although it stretches almost forts along the coast of the Far East of the Russian Federation — from Anadyr to the Korean border.
Tower batteries Pacific shaft had impressive size and resembled an underground town.
Monuments terrible century
At the site of the abandoned battery "shaft Stalin" could make a museum: inside them there is something to look at.
Calculating the greyish generals
First Russian shore batteries in the Far East have appeared in the 1860s in Nikolaevsk-on-Amur, and the beginning of Russian-Japanese War, the coastal fortress was rebuilt also in Port Arthur and Vladivostok. But in the years that for us to be ashamed of the war, they did not help too much — because of the remarkable conservatism of the royal generals and admirals.
Despite the fact that back in 1894 Obukhov plant started producing 305/40-mm guns (305 — size 40 — the ratio of the length of the barrel to the caliber of the other words that of the gun barrel length is 12.2 m) with a range of 26 km on ships and shore batteries continued to stand guns, firing at 4 to 6 km. Above the officers of their proposed change for more dalnostrelnye, graying generals only laughed: "This is what a fool would fire 10 miles away?" In the views of the then authorities, the enemy's ships were to approach our coast fortresses of four kilometers, to anchor and start to artillery battles.
But the Japanese underestimated: their ships to Port Arthur and Vladivostok so closely approached and shot away with the military and civilian objects with several huge distances. After class Russian-Japanese war of our military establishment has started construction of a 10-s concrete shore batteries near Vladivostok. Not all of them have been completed, when came the first global. But Japan became an ally of, and the need for the defense of the Far Eastern borders anymore. In the end, almost all coastal batteries Vladivostok and Nikolaevsk-on-Amur, were disarmed and sent guns to the front and on the Baltic shore batteries. And when Reddish army "in the Pacific graduated own campaign," in Vladivostok, as well as throughout the Maritime region, had neither the ship nor the coastal guns.
Do not be alarmed if you suddenly run into severe guns roaming the Far East coast. All along the coast are scattered hundreds of abandoned fishing with removed electronic and optical devices.
The first 10 years of Russian power in the Far East, no navy and coastal defense. Mnogotysyachekilometrovogo Coast Guard conducted several schooners, armed with small-caliber guns. All would be well, and it lasted, but in 1931 over the Far East and Siberia hung a terrible threat. Japan occupied Manchuria and put forward territorial claims to the Russian Union. Thousands of miles of shoreline Far East were very vulnerable to a large Japanese fleet.
In late May of the same year, the government has decided to strengthen the far eastern coastline with new batteries. To choose their locations in Vladivostok came a special committee chaired by the People's Commissar of Defense Kliment Voroshilov. Assessing the battle positions, Voroshilov came to disastrous conclusion: "The capture of Vladivostok is the usual expedition, which may be assigned to at least what the figurehead adventurer."
But Stalin was determined not to give the people of the country of the rising sun single inch of the land toward the Far East were pulled trains with tanks, artillery systems, armored vehicles … Far Eastern Division first received the new aircraft, so soon in the Far East were already several hundred distant bombers TB-3 ready at any moment to attack the towns land of the rising sun. Once construction began vast Pacific shaft of the many hundreds of shore batteries and concrete bunkers.
On the map of the eastern coast of the USSR reddish line indicates the placement of shore batteries (right).
The huge building
Formally, this is a terrific facility had no names, and some of its areas timidly designated sectors of coastal defense.
Pacific Stalin shaft extends from Chukotka, which was created by the Northern sector of the coastal defense, to the southern end of the Union of Russian Far East coast. 10-acid batteries have been built on the Kamchatka Peninsula, along the shores of the Gulf of Avachin, Northern Sakhalin, Magadan area and Nikolaevsk-on-Amur. In those days, the coast of Primorye was a desolate region, because the shore batteries often covered only approaches to naval bases, the Pacific Fleet. But in the area of Vladivostok all the coast from the Bay of Transfiguration to the Korean border was blocked by fire hundreds of coastal guns. The entire coastal defense has been divided into separate sectors — Khasan, Vladivostok, Shkotovsky and Suchan. The most powerful among them, of course, was the Vladivostok. Thus, only one Russian peninsula adjoining the peninsula Muraveva-Amur, was built s
even coastal batteries. At the same battery number 981 Voroshilov, located on Mount Wetlina, was the most powerful not only on the Russian peninsula, and perhaps in the USSR: the firing range 6 305/52-mm guns battery was 53 km away!
Our tower batteries were the entire underground town. The construction of the Voroshilov battery took as much concrete as the construction of the Dnieper. Under the 3-7-meter-thick layer of concrete were snarjadnye Chargers and cellars, room personnel — hospital, shower, galley, dining area and the "Leninist room." Any battery had its own diesel generator, provides a standalone electronic power and water supply. Special filters and ventilation systems allow personnel to spend weeks in a tower in the event of infection or poisoning the surrounding area with radioactive substances.
Tower installation is out of date and in the atomic age. So, for the scrapping of the 305-mm or 180-mm battery required a direct hit at least 2-nukes capacity of 20 kt or more. With the explosion of a bomb in the 20 km (Hiroshima "kid") with a slip in a tower of 200 m and kept fighting capacity. First 1950s many batteries have automatic fire control system from radar (radar) of the "Broadside". Val Stalin in action
Giant shaft Stalin quite accomplished its puzzle. Japanese fleet did not dare to approach our shores. Yet several coastal batteries Pacific shaft had to shoot in August 1945. Thus, the battery Khasansky sector supported by fire coming our troops on the Korean border. A 130-mm battery number 945, located on the southern tip of Kamchatka — Cape Lopatka — a few days support our troops fire at his landing on the peninsula Shimushu (now Shumshu) — the northernmost island of the Kuril Islands.
Four railway installations, which were part of the Vladivostok sector coast Defense, in August 1945, its course through Harbin were transferred to the Liaodong Peninsula. In this shoot they were not residents of the country of the rising sun, and on the Yankees. The fact that South American ships took on board several thousand fighter Chiang Kai-shek, whom they were going to land at Port Arthur and far between. But Stalin had very different plans for North China, the Kuomintang and the presence there is not foreseen. The presence of 4 buildings of the 39th Army and the long-range railway batteries on the Liaodong Peninsula to the Yankees made the necessary memory and the question of landing withered away.
First 1960 Pacific coastal batteries shaft began to break up, and for 30 years they have all been destroyed. Everywhere were filmed radio-electronic and optical instruments, somewhere removed the guns themselves. Accelerated the process of dissolution "prospectors" Break off all the things that contain non-ferrous metals. But the armored turret removed and concrete construction giant was beyond any Russian authorities nor the modern Democratic Party. On the ground, the Pacific tree could not organize a tourist route, but Far East — it's not the West. Here are deserted concrete pillboxes and battery mute monument to the fierce and majestic century.