The tradition to call escorts adjectives sometimes has to be extremely accurately. "Guarding" firstborn 20380 — it's just a symbol of class frigate. "Courageous", kindly took us on board — is a serious bid for success, because it is — the third in the series. After a dozen or so will be the turn named "Reasonable" — after all, if the ship can be truly massive, it is the best show that the interest rate on the new class corvettes for the Russian was done right.
Class coastal patrol ships to the USSR — it's the same "holy place", which for decades was empty. Why is it a good idea explains the history of the ship of Project 12441 of the "Novik".
Illustration TFR pr.12441 "Novik" of the journal "Military Parade", 1990 year
In 1991, the project was approved 12440, designed with the latest technology: the gas turbine power plant with two propulsion engines and two reheat, body and superstructure, made with the use of composite materials and to meet the requirements of low radar signature (technology "Stealth"), the most modern and promising at the time anti-aircraft missile system "polyment? /? Redoubt" hangar for permanent basing antisubmarine helicopter.
In the 1994 revision of the project was completed, due to the collapse of the Soviet Union: a set of prospective suppliers suddenly found themselves in foreign countries. The project modernized several times in the course of construction. Improved its handling characteristics and fighting qualities, but with them grew and displacement of the ship, which is significantly higher than originally indicated in the job. "Novik" came close to the ships of the marine areas for continued patrol and escort vessels on the transitions on the seas, but have redundancy features for fighting off the coast.
In the end, the most technically advanced ship was renamed the Russian school was never completed.
A similar story is being developed in the 1970's "Undaunted", the project 11540. Designed as a small anti-submarine ship with a displacement of 800? T it for a few years, "plump" up to 1500, then to 2000, and in the version with the helicopter reached 2,500? T and moved into the marine zone. A similar outcome: the service in 1987, only one out "Fearless."
Of course, a fast, secure and well-armed "Novik" easily could have coped with any problems in the coastal zone. His fatal flaw — the price. But for the protection of maritime borders and the timely response to local territorial conflicts patrol ships should be plenty.
So towards the end of 1990 was announced a competition to develop a lighter and cheaper patrol ship, which won the Central Marine Design Bureau "Almaz", the one that designed the "Novik".
20380 Ships of the "Guarding" promise to become the main force of the Navy of Russia in the coastal zone. And despite the lower cost compared to the "Novik", this is without a doubt one of the most innovative and technologically advanced machines of the domestic fleet.
By notable innovations include the shape of the case and processed with almost a quarter of a reduced hydrodynamic drag, and a helicopter hangar, hosted for the first time on such a small ship. The major breakthrough could be called the use of integrated information systems and weapons control all electronic equipment machine.
Finally, the ship received a new class notation in full compliance with the time and the international terminology. Now it is not a patrol boat and a corvette.
Behind the scenes, vaguely
Compared with their predecessors in the 20380 can already be called a success. We were lucky to get on board a "lively" — the third ship of the project, anchored at the plant "Severnaya Verf" in St. Petersburg. He is in the final stages of production tests. The other two, "Guarding" and "savvy", have already been taken by the Navy Russia. Another four corvettes laid on the stocks of "Northern Shipyard" and the Amur Shipbuilding Plant, just as ordered 20 ships, and perhaps this is not the limit.
The main components of the success of the project 20380 — well-designed hull design and a single electronic automation system. These terms define and combat skills, weaponry and composition, and working conditions of the crew, as well as reliability, maintainability, and the possibility of upgrading the machine.
Contours of the steel hull of the ship have been designed from the ground up and is so successful that the drag at full speed (27 knots or 50 km / h) decreased by 25%. This allowed the use of less powerful and lighter main power plant (power plant), thereby freeing up more than 15% increase in tonnage for the payload. Hence, impressive for a 1500-ton ship set of various weapons and even a helipad, a hangar and a 20-ton stockpile of fuel for anti-submarine helicopter "Ka-27".
Improved seaworthiness corvette you can use it in rough force of arms to five points (two points more than the previous analogs). In addition, less powerful powerplant is quieter, contributing to reduce the visibility of the ship in the hydroacoustic range. To reduce engine noise mechanisms have been applied technologies previously spent on submarines.
Power plant consists of two diesel-diesel units DDA12000 specifically designed JSC "Kolomna factory" on the basis of proven diesel D49 with microprocessor control. Each unit consists of two 16-cylinder V-type diesel engines and the summing gear and leads a fixed pitch propeller. The total capacity of the two-shaft power plant reaches 24? 000 hp Four diesel generators of 630 kW each provide onboard power network.
"Guarding" is often called the invisible, although adherence to the principles of technology "Stealth" — an indispensable attribute of modern ships of this class. Topside width from side to side is made of slow-radar-absorbing glass and carbon fiber reinforced plastics. Antenna posts and Missiles possibly removed in the case. Four-pipe 330-mm torpedo tubes complex protivotorpednoy protect the "Tax Package" hidden in latsportah. In general, the average circular radar cross section spacecraft reduced threefold compared with the previous analogs, so the probability of sighting him anti-ship cruise missiles has been reduced from 0.5 to 0.1.
Shoulder to shoulder
Single combat information management system — this is perhaps the main innovation in the 20380 somehow affects the tactical characteristics of the ship and the lives of the crew, and the reliability of all the hardware, and even the speed of the modernization of armaments.
"Earlier systems were scattered all over the ship and all the work on their coordination fell on the crew, the ball is now ruled integrated bridge systems, which focused description of the current status of all vehicle systems, from mechanics to the use of weapons," — said the deputy chief builder Plant "Severnaya Verf" Yuri Alexandrov.
In addition to government ship Integrated Bridge System includes two components: a control section and anti-submarine missile weapons and radar control section and light air, surface and underwater conditions. The first section consists of three posts, arranged side by side right on the bridge. It employs the commanders of combat units (CU). The first is responsible for anti-submarine warfare, the second — for anti-ship complex. Externally t
heir posts look the same: the big screen, which displays information about the objectives and the state of combat systems. The same screen is the commander of the corvette, which may at any time request any information about the ship and the officer of the watch also has access to a variety of sources — the parameters of diesel engines to stocks of provisions.
The objectives of the third commander of the warhead is to coordinate all the weapons systems and making recommendations to the captain on the use of weapons. It is important that both the captain and helmsman, and the officer of the watch, and the commanders of the warhead work in the same room with lightning speed and can take coordinated decisions and to enforce them.
The corvette has a system that can coordinate the weapons and systems to detect a number of vehicles operating in the division. On the technical side of her work factory employees prefer not to, noting, however, that with every new vehicle system becomes more powerful.
Its essence is that the information on the air, surface and underwater conditions, on detected targets and ties concentrated in a single center and processed. It is determined by the gravity of objectives, a decision about the type of weapons used, and the information is sent immediately included in the group of ships, helicopters and aircraft for coordinated action.
The use of such a system, especially logically combined with the helicopter, which, being invulnerable for submarines and using active sonar detection means, before the vessel has obvious advantages in terms of underwater situation.
As long as the control system division is a very weighty stationary equipment to be placed on the ship, but in the near future, it will be portable: figuratively speaking, all the tactical information will be concentrated in the suitcase admiral.
Section radar control lighting and air, surface and underwater situation is in the chart room, next to the bridge.
Target detection means operated by several officers. There is also a card-server that downloads the map navigator marine areas, in accordance with the plan of campaign. Thanks to a uniform system of these cards are available at all positions where it is needed — from the bridge to the helicopter hangar.
The maximum automation of all spacecraft systems allow multiple times to reduce the time needed for decision-making and facilitate the work of the crew and to reduce their number to 100.
Ready to upgrade
The presence of integrated information networks in the ship entails a number of additional benefits associated with the reliability, maintainability and speed the modernization of equipment. According to Yuri Alexandrov, in the construction of corvettes involved more than one thousand industrial and research enterprises, scattered literally all over Russia. As each component comes into the plant, the moment of truth: it must demonstrate perfect compatibility with all systems of the ship.
Compatibility problems are not uncommon in the shipbuilding industry. Fortunately, thanks to modern electronic technology, many components have become smaller and lighter than ever before. Now you can return them to the manufacturer for rework or invite experts to the plant with the necessary spare parts.
United shipboard network, on the one hand, a standardization means of communication protocols different devices. Components are initially created just for them, so the probability of "exclusion" becomes smaller. On the other hand, enterprises, suppliers can test their components in advance with the help of computer simulations.
For example, if you are testing a radar station, the computer can play a role as the rest of the ship and its arms and goals that you want to detect.
Finally, the modular concept of the ship provides the ability to install the latest weapons when they become operational. For example, if the title ship 20380 "Guarding" responsible for the air defense anti-aircraft missile system "Dirk-M", then on "lively", which appeared in the light of the third, he was replaced by more modern and incomparably more powerful air defense system "Redoubt" .
Three blocks of four cells (12 total cells) may carry missiles 12 9M96E2 range of up to 135 km and altitude up to 35 km lesions to 48 9M100 defense missiles with a range up to 12 km in various combinations. Defend against an attack from the air, "Reduta" will help man-portable air defense systems "Igla" (starting with the shoulder) and two aft six-barreled 30-mm gun mounts AK-630M.
Serial and different
As befits a new project, the ship met on his way a lot of criticism. Perhaps the attacks on the cruising range is not large due to the absence of the earlier class corvettes in service with the Russian Navy. Skeptics should recognize that the challenges facing the Navy, have changed and these days to have a few dozen corvettes more important than a few ocean-going destroyers.
Discussion arose about the composition of arms ship, its security and survivability, but these qualities are also difficult to be separated from the tactical schemes, which are typical for the class corvettes.
Within a few years of service to the "keepers of the" double fault occurred in the main power plant, which led to the comparison of diesel-diesel unit with gas turbine engines, more reliable, and easier, but incomparably more expensive.
At the time of the release of this material in print, "Courageous" could already be in order, if not for the problem with a 100-mm artillery installation "Universal", which has refused to work in normal mode, not only on the 20380, but also on the Russian-made Indian frigates Talwar , Trishul and Tabar.
However, the main advantage of the ships of the "Guarding" — flexibility. Diesel engines can be modified, gun mounts replaced, but the ships will not be left on the stocks and do not turn into unfinished. "No ship the previous one — confirms Yuri Alexandrov. — "Savvy" in many respects different from the "Guarding", "Courageous" also looks a little different. " That flexibility, availability, quantity production, and potentially mass suggests that the project is 20380 — this is a big success of the Russian Navy.
The photo captures the second Project 20380 corvette, named "savvy". Behind the 100-mm artillery system can be considered cover launchers cell anti-missile system "Redoubt"
1. The post commander, occupies the left part of the bridge. For the most part it consists of screens on which the commander can display virtually any information about the state of the ship and weapons, objectives, environment and navigation. 2. The steering post is a navigation screen, the steering wheel and control panel power plant (full speed, slow speed, etc.). The ship itself can maintain a given rate, but even on auto-pilot at the helm is always on duty sailor. On the right hand from the steering handle can be seen autonomous communication device that will enable to send a message to any post in the event of power failure. 3. Post officer of the watch allows you to simultaneously control all vehicle systems, the state of the power plant to the stock of provisions. Officer of the watch is available to an expanded system of communication and can quickly connect to any post on the ship.
CHART OF ARMS 1. 100-mm gun mount A-190 "Universal" 2. Fighting module SAM "Dirk M" (for subsequent ships — 12 SAM launchers cells "Redoubt") 3. Anti-ship missile system "Uranus" (later to be replaced by the "Onyx" or "Calibre") 4. 30-mm six-barrel anti-aircraft gun AK-630M 5. Latsport complex protivotorpednoy protect the "Tax Package" 6. The complex decoy PC-10 7. Underkeel aerial sonar system "Zarya-2" 8. Sonar system targeting complex protivotorpednoy protection 9. Navigation radar "Pal-N" 10. The navigation radar MR 231-2 11. Opto-electronic device MTC-201 M2.2 12. The radar antenna targeting 5P-10 "Puma" 13. The radar antenna "A Monument" in the radio-housing 14. General three-coordinate radar detection "Furke-2" 15. Lower the sonar "Anapa-M" 16. Station complex electronic warfare TK-25-2 17. Hangar for ASW helicopter Ka-27 18. The landing area 19. Extended towed sonar "Minotaur-M"
By Sergey Apresov