The Russians, who managed to keep common sense and at least some — the ability to analyze, much of what is happening in the country, is frightened, if not more. That there seems to be the territory is, what — no government, there is even a church, but that the state in which to live and work for the good of the people and not myself. In the near future, it seems, is not expected.
Events related to the trial of the nationals, violated certain canons of worship have highlighted a huge problem, not only historically, but first of all, the problem of the government and policies of the ruling class. And this problem is called split, which are reluctant to remember and the hierarchs of the Orthodox Church, and the powers that be.
Analogy in history — a very controversial thing, but for the outside of the historical process always lies inside, deep essence, we are looking for, and have no way to determine. Specifically, can the state interfere in church affairs, and vice versa? What causes friendship secular and religious authorities?
As you know, February 11, 1653, the then Patriarch have omitted in the publication follow the Psalms chapter on the number of bows in prayer of St. Ephraim the Syrian and dvuperstnom cross. There is very little time, when the current archpastor have to explain this event 360 — year-old. This, of course, not very pleasant, but questions arise as a split — the work of a secular government and church. It's bloody, and not a closed chapter in the history.
As you know, the citizens of European countries from time to time require to apologize for the victims of the Catholic Inquisition. Perfectly justifiable action, and probably will not be a sin, and we remember those who zapytali in basements of monasteries and the sovereign's orders for disagreeing with the official church, and — heretics.
In Russia, the heretics were tried for "grad" law, but it is — in the words of the historian Nikolai Karamzin — it was only a "propriety." Church brethren did not shun inquisitorial methods of disposing of — search and interrogation by torture and other ways of "knowing the truth." They were often the entire lawsuit, seeking pleasing her conviction and sentence, was sent to the bonfires of heretics and disobedient own power, secular power was also a performer of her claims and judgments.
Joseph of Volokolamsk declared that the king, who did not wish to fight against heresy, not a servant of God and the devil. How is it you? Joseph of Volokolamsk, in the world Sanin, was the one at the present time, it could draw on Article 282, and his writings immediately banned. Joseph brought down many of the heretics hulitelnyh "Words", written in the fiercely militant spirit. By insisting on the execution of heretics, Joseph argued that even those who, fearing death, repent, do not deserve mercy and forgiveness. The "fiery executions" and prisons Joseph saw "jealousy" to the Orthodox faith. He preached like butchers hands punishing heretics himself "holy spirit." No more and no less.
Convincing the king of the need to destroy the heretics, Joseph said that "the sinner or heretic hands to kill, or prayer is one" and that the execution of the heretic — means "hand sanctify." Joseph called on all "true Christians," "test and eliminate duplicity heretical" and threatening severe punishment to those who "did not testify," ie, not reported, the heretics. Here you have a hate on religion, to my mother do not go!
In 1504, judged heretical church council. At the insistence of the Cathedral of the most active heretics — Ivan Wolf, Michael and Ivan Maximov Konopleva burned in a cage in Moscow, and ugly Rukavova — in Novgorod, after cutting off his tongue. Spiritual inquisitors led by Metropolitan Simon insisted another burning Tartu Archimandrite Cassian.
Bloody terror against members of anti-church movement did not stop there. Joseph continued to seek out and bring them to severe punishment. Yielding to Joseph, Tsar Vasily Ivanovich, as the Chronicle, ordered the remaining heretics "in prison until the end of the abdomen vmetati them."
Keep up with him and successor Moscow Metropolitan Daniel. Laurels philosopher did not give him no rest, he decided to prove the necessity of such executions. Daniel in his sermons was based on John Chrysostom, justifies punishment "by the will of God for mankind", and Bishop Eusebius, who taught that "the murder of God's sake legion murder." Daniel called his opponents "by detractors the name of God." He argued that the heretics — the enemies of not only the church but also the state. Forbidding communion with heretics, Daniel tried to call him a sense of "perfect hatred." He convinced the king "vozzrevat enemies of God" "divine jealousy and show them righteous fury." He also stressed that the right to judge heretics and award them to the harsh punishment belongs church authority. Duty as a secular government — unquestioningly carry out the decisions of church councils and church hierarchy. That is to say, God — gods — Caesar — Caesar.
Many suffered from the church authorities and Maxim the Greek, which he previously played for the death penalty heretics. Maxim the Greek, appeared before the church council in 1525, He was found "zlohulitelnym heretic" and imprisoned Volokolamsk monastery. Maxim the Greek forbidden to write, tormented by hunger, cold and, as noted by one source, he "smoke and the sorrows Thou didst was dead." In such circumstances, Maxim spent six years. He was brought in chains to Moscow and brought to trial a new church council. Here, in his writings found "blasphemy against God and the Mother of God" and accused that he was "writing blasphemous and heretical" and criticized the ecclesiastical constitutions and laws, he is a heretic and a warlock. Church council condemned Maxim as "scornful men and Scripture tlitelya" and exiled in chains to a monastery, where he was imprisoned in stone bag. Well, just as it is now!
At the Church Council in 1554 as a "godless heretic and apostate Orthodox faith" condemned Matthew Bashkin. He was tortured and forced to confess to heresy. As reported by some sources, the sentence of the church council Bashkin put in a wooden cage and burned. His supporters were sent to monasteries in close confinement.
With assistance and at the insistence of Moscow metropolitans Daniel and Macarius "church rebels" were regarded as state criminals. To fight the "obidyaschimi church" state when he fought in contact with representatives of the church. On Stoglavy Cathedral Bishops asked the king severely punish heretics "Gradsky 'court.
Please church hierarchy has been implemented. The king issued a decree "on the great royal disfavor of the heretics by Gradsky laws, prohibition of spiritual saints." Punishment in cases of heresy continues to establish an ecclesiastical court, the secular, the courts were their performers. A contemporary wrote: "… and who they have for spiritual matters … condemned to death, who won what, and they are out of business by writing down his sentence, send those convicted people in the royal court, and the way of their judgment of the court of the king ordered to be executed without detention, who then is worthy. "
Torture defendants also made at the request of Church authorities. In the Council Code of 1649 criticism of the church and its doctrines regarded as blasphemy and punishable by burning at the stake. Just punished "without mercy all who" and other actions against religion and church — go to the "basurmanskuyu" faith, blasphemy, etc. According to the alien enemies of the Church, "blasphemers", impaled, after death, the body was removed from the stake carried the city gates and burned, and the ashes were covered with earth. By a decree of 1684 death by burning indulged heretics who "backed away from the church and repairing temptation and rebellion" and "rebaptized."
Peter I also defend the interests of bishops: "Detractors of faith — said Peter — causing shame to the state and should not be tolerated, inasmuch as undermining the law." Guilty tongue burned with a hot iron, and then they are put to death. In "Martial numbers are also" was written that death is also punished, and those who are not informed on the heretics, because they were considered "partakers bogohuleniya."
In 1722, a fire blazed in Moscow. Retired Captain Vasily Levin spoke against the church "evil and outrageous speech" and did not recognize the icons. Levin was tortured — have raised the rack and gave eleven strokes. As a blasphemer and enemy power Levin was executed in Moscow, in the Swamp: he cut off his head, and then burned the body. Levin's head was sent to Penza, where he preached his views. Put it here for all to see, the fear of others. Along with Levin executed four more of his supporters. They were accused of what they knew about the "heresy" Levin, but it was told to him. Their heads were displayed at home next to the head Levin. After the execution of the Synod wished to destroy the monastery, where he lived Levin, but this requirement even secular authorities seemed cruel and unnecessary. However, all the monks have been arrested a long time in "the land is cold."
Come to the main point: the victims of homegrown inquisitors were mostly women. On religious ideas, the women easier to enter into relations with the devil. Women accused that they spoil the weather, crops, they culprits crop failure and famine.
Kiev Metropolitan Photius has developed a series of measures to combat the witches. In his letter to the clergy of this Inquisitor offered to excommunicate all who would seek the help of witches and sorcerers. In the same year, at the instigation of the clergy in Pskov burned 12 witches' prophetic zhenok ", they were accused of witchcraft. In 1444 on a charge of witchcraft in Mozhaisk publicly burnt boyar Andrei Dmitrovich with his wife. Stoglavy Council adopted against them a number of harsh decrees. Along with the prohibition to keep at home and read "bogomerzkih heretical books," The Council condemned magicians, sorcerers and magicians, who, as noted by the Council Fathers, "the world allure and excommunicated from God."
Church authorities to order that the fight against witchcraft and set against the alleged witches people. Authorities Trinity Sergius Monastery special decree forbade keep monastic estates "Magi" and "women — the witch." Magi found power and enchantment offered "b and c yes yes knocked out of robbing parish of mind", that is, expel. With farmers who allowed communication with soothsayers, took a ten fine with every one hundred people.
Active role of the clergy in the organization and conduct witch processes notes and a royal decree in 1731 According to this decree, the diocesan bishops were going to go to the fight against sorcery was carried out without any mercy. Decree reminded that the magic of the death penalty by burning. Subjected to burning and those who do not "fear of God's wrath," resorted to witches and "quacks" for help. Before burning them even whipped.
Patriarch Nikon, like its predecessors, was an excellent moneymaker. His contemporaries said of Nikon, that he, as a robber, robbing churches and monasteries, seized estates of the boyars and servitors. He owned more than 25,000 peasant households. As noted by one source, Nikon their peasants' hard labor martyred. " He mercilessly also not acceptable to him by priests. For minor infractions were imprisoned in their monasteries, and sent into exile. He was called the "fierce wolves", "cruel tormentors."
Began a campaign against the supporters of the old faith, Nikon subjected to torture the most active members split. They cut the tongue, hands and feet were burned at the stake. A vivid picture of the bloody terror undertaken by Nikon and his minions, gives, gives the dissenters: "Nikon — wrote in his letter raskolouchitel Habakkuk — Bishop Paul Kolomna tortured and burned to within Novgorod, Kostroma Archpriest Daniel starved in earthen prison in Astrakhan; priest Gabriel Nizhny ordered to cut off his head, Elder Jonah Kazantsev Kola prison dissected into five parts, in Kholmogory burned Ivan the Simpleton, in Borovsk — Polievkt priest, and with him 14. In Nizhny burned a lot of people in Kazan 30, and living in the Volga River in the towns and villages, and who did not want to take anti-Christian press put to the sword by the thousands. And with me, 'continued on Habakkuk — sat 60 people and we were all tortured and beaten and cursed and kept in prison. "
Habakkuk knew that writing, as does Nikon was countryman. Another dissenter listed instruments of torture — pests, mites, jolting, chopping block, swords, log, it mentions the iron clamps — typical gun Inquisition. "Clamps, attracting head, hands and feet in a single location from which worst torment on the ridge behind the bone joints to lament the same blood from the mouth, and ears and nostrils and eyes of flows."
Could not stand the brutal torture, some farmers — dissenters conversion to Orthodoxy, but it does not relieve them of severe penalties. Thus, in 1684, in the Novgorod Theological Board conducted the inquiry of "thief — Ikonnikov" Mikhailov. While under torture he refused to profess the split, it still burned. In 1671 hung "umoverzhennogo" impostor Ivashka Kleopina for what it is, as stated in the verdict, "icons and books divine infamy".
To crack down on the religious movement in 1685, issued a decree, known as the "12 Articles of dissenters." This decree authorized the mass terror under the guise of the "purity" of Orthodoxy. Creator of the decree was a fanatic and the worst enemy of the dissenters Patriarch Joachim, who considered his life's work "the eradication of evil tares utterly heretical." The decree ordered the torture of those who did not obey the established church and its ministers — did not go, as required, to confession, did not attend church services, were not allowed in the house to perform rites of priests who, by their hostility to the church "repaired temptation and rebellion ". "Church opponents" again asked to burn in the wooden house, and the ashes of their dispel the wind. Raskolnikov, a repentant under torture were ordered to enter the monastic life in prison and kept in strict confinement. Church property rebels — homesteading, shops townspeople, fishing — were selected, and the settlement "burns without residue." At the Synod was held in a special investigative divisive Office, headed by the inquisitors — Tver Archbishop Theophylact Lopatinsky and Fr Athanasius Kondoidi. According to the Synod of the 190,000 enrolled in the division from 1716 to 1737 drawn to Orthodoxy, fled, exiled to Siberia and died as a result of persecution 111,000.
On the mass self-immolation dissenters under the influence of persecution shows consolidated Believer "synodic", only for the years 1667-1700. This agonizing death surrendered to 8,834 people, most of them women and children. Thus, only 13 years after the first reports of mass self-immolation in 1685 issued a decree about the persecution of dissenters including the death penalty IF impenitence.
So what they had to repent, or, as explained by the schismatics, "to renounce their faith?" They are not required to give up their belief in the Holy Trinity, in Jesus Christ, Son of God, the Mother of God, in one baptism for the remission of sins and the resurrection of the dead, but only to confess that blasphemed the Church, Orthodox churches and the Holy Sacrament, chetverokonechny the cross and the name of Jesus, in violation of the Creed rebaptize Orthodox people and persuade them to commit a mortal sin of suicide. In those days, the Church believes that such blasphemy is unacceptable, and the civil authority in support of her and the "church rebels", ye scornful men, and the scorner is considered sacrilegious criminals. All returned to normal …
Author: Vasily Kudanenko