Chinese, Italian, Swedish and Danish companies control for millions of acres of arable Russian
Different kinds of natural disasters are increasingly affect countries that are considered the world's main producers and consumers of food at the same time. The most frightening in this regard was in 2010 when drought, floods and other natural disasters assailed simultaneously in China, India, Russia, Ukraine, the USA, Australia, Pakistan. It is no accident, it was then president of the World Bank, Robert Zeelik, warned that "the world for the first time in recent memory, separate from the chaos is only one poor harvest."
Not surprisingly, the wealthiest countries are trying to err on the "hunger of the future" in different ways. Including the purchase of agricultural land in areas of the world where they have not yet publicly available. The greatest scope for such activities is Africa.
According to the Oakland Research Institute (USA), who leads Rosbalt, since 2008, foreign companies in Africa have acquired or long-term lease of more than 60 million hectares. This is an area in excess of France. The most active buyers of land — China, India, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates.
— Arab countries are implementing a lot of different projects related to the development of agricultural land outside its borders. — The president of the Middle East Institute Yevgeny Satanovsky. — The scope of their interests get the most different regions, ranging from the Ukraine and ending Sudan and Ethiopia. Today it is clear that land and water are resources that are valued less than oil, gas and metals. Saudi Arabia and other Persian Gulf monarchies are unlikely in the next geological era will be the owners of the prairie or Nechernozemie, and the money they have more than enough. Therefore, more than logical that these countries use their capital, not to be on the beans when shortage of land and water will be critical.
Previously, Saudi Arabia tried to get out of the situation by means of so-called circular fields on its own territory. Saudis have watered them, pumping of underground fresh water lens. They were then able to produce wheat in their own territory in large numbers and even send something to export. It was a very exotic and insanely expensive project. Upon reflection, they realized that it is much easier to buy fertile land in poor countries, which have fertile farmland.
"SP": — Africa, especially in Ethiopia is very unstable region. Is it worth the risks agricultural hozyastva in such countries?
— In Pakistan, Ethiopia, Sudan and some other countries, the situation is very unstable, so even agricultural work there are dangerous. But if it was not profitable, the business would have long since gone out. Also, do not themselves have the Saudis had moved in. Show me a sheikh who is the real farmers. Saudi, seated for farm tractor — crazy exotic. For something to look at it, the money will be paid. On bought in Africa and elsewhere farmland Arabs imported Thai and Filipino migrant workers, the same ones who work in large numbers in the UAE. There's a million residents four million visitors. And around these ratios guest workers from Pakistan, Ceylon and South-East Asia are present in other monarchies of the Persian Gulf. How many of their killed or eaten — the last of what they think Arab businessmen.
In addition, there are some strategic things that can make a profit in the future. Even the king-father at the end of the 19th century began to build a railroad to the Far East. And it paid off for the first time in the 60 years of the 20th century, when there was a Soviet-Chinese conflict in the island Damansky. Buying land in Africa — from such projects.
Today, if you find yourself in Ethiopia, and I was there a month ago, you will find several Chinese broadcast channels and 62 channels of 97 Arabic-speaking, of which two-thirds of the Persian Gulf. That's impressive.
Actively developing overseas farmland and China. The land where the expansion is supported by the state. And no wonder. Given that one in five people of the Earth — a Chinese in China is only 7 per cent of global arable land.
Therefore, in the Congo, Zambia and Mozambique, China property is a total of about 6 million hectares.
However, according to the deputy director of the Institute of Far Eastern Studies, the Vice-President of the European Association of Sinologists Andrei Ostrovsky, the Chinese are yet to cope with the food problem and within its own territory. "Foreign" lands they need primarily for other purposes. According to the scientist, China still manages to avoid dependence on the import of products in almost all key indicators, except for soy.
— Chinese more than the air needed energy — says sinologist, — to supply oil to China in the first place to date — Angola. Given the opportunity to block the Strait of Hormuz, Africa is China's key source of energy supplies, particularly oil.
Given the instability of the market "black gold" China wants to find other ways to solve the problem of "energy starvation." In particular, in the Congo the Chinese bought 2.8 million hectares for palm oil production, playing the role of biofuels.
— If we talk about the main priorities of Chinese science, in the top five is to receive fuel-path, — says Andrey Ostrovsky.
"SP": — What can you say about a million hectares in Tanzania and Mozambique, where rice is grown?
— Yes, they can afford to buy the land in order to experiment on it with the recent discovery of the rice genome.
Russia's position in this situation is ambiguous. On the one hand, we repeat all sides of the abandoned arable lands, of unprofitable agricultural production in Nechernozemie. Yes, as if the law does not allow foreigners to purchase Russian farmland. On the other hand, according to the Institute for Agricultural Market Studies (IKAR) foreign companies through subsidiaries already get their hands on for about one million hectares of Russian farmland.
— Most of the land is under the control of foreigners in the Chernozem zone of Russia, — says Director Dmitry Rylko Icarus.
Meanwhile, the most "delicious" land for foreign capital located in the Krasnodar and Stavropol territories. It is there that one can obtain the highest yields of grain in Russia. And besides, these regions are located near the Black Sea ports, facilitating imports of Russian grain to different destinations.
— However, there foreign companies rented or through subsidiaries in the property received from two to four percent of the arable land. This, as you can see, relatively few, — says Dmitry Rylko.
According to the expert, the foreigners, by and large, still only get accustomed to Russian selhozprostoram. And some have already and burned.
— Much of Russia — the zone of risky agriculture. The system of agricultural insurance against weather risk is in our country in its infancy. Foreigners come to unfamiliar operating conditions, it is very difficult to navigate. Infrastructure is poorly developed, product prices vary greatly depending on the region.
However, the chairman of the Association (peasant) and Agricultural Cooperatives of Russia Vyacheslav Telegin believes that the issue has dominated Russian farmland by foreign companies if it is run in the near future may become very acute.
— Two years ago, we analyzed this issue in detail. Already at that time, a structure affelirovannye foreigners controlled much more than a million hectares of Russian farmland. This Italian and Swedish, and Danish companies. Such companies in Russia for at least a dozen and each in circulation — hundreds of thousands of hectares. The founders of their subsidiaries formally the number of Russian citizens, and funding is actually realized by foreign investors.
To know exactly who we owned the land, it is necessary to remove from the law the concept of "ownership of legal entities" and leave only "private property of a natural person." Before that, we will not know the surnames selhozprepriyaty owners and land.
"SP": — what can turn to Russian mass buying or renting of land by foreigners?
— When the production of agricultural products by foreign companies will grow, it will result in pressure on the authorities. First at the regional and then at the federal level. Today we have loopholes in the law to allow foreign business to develop our land.
Another problem is that about 85 percent of agricultural land in Russia is not listed in the inventories Companies House. I'm talking about the land, which was put into privatization in the early 90's. And that 118 million hectares of land. Can you imagine what this opens the door for fraud! Who can tell what's going on?
That's why we seek support of the state in this regard. Most recently, we have met. Funds have been allocated from the budget for processing of farm land, land surveying and registration. So far, however, these programs are not very effective. The fact that 50 percent of funds for land registration should allocate regional authorities and 50 per cent — the federal budget. Without the money will not give regional and federal. But on the ground in no hurry to allocate money, citing a lack of funds. This indirectly indicates that the local authorities are not interested in them to have the land was assigned to the farmers in their region.
"SP": — Why?
— The current situation, when a lot of agricultural land in Russia is in "limbo" situation allows, they say, to fish in troubled waters, take away the land to the left and to the right …
"SP": — Where are the products manufactured by foreign selhozkompaniyami in Russia?
— Often for export. Is spent on the provision of other companies operating in Russia. The fact that the process of development of our land by foreigners is — there's no doubt about it. Almost all of our farmers on their skin can feel it in the regions.
"SP": — Can we say that foreign companies in the Russian market, with Western support, develop better?
— Undoubtedly. They fit into the system, offer support, and sales. While the main problem of the peasants of Russia lies precisely in the fact that the Soviet distribution structure is destroyed, and the new has not yet been established. That is why it is often no incentive for farmers to increase production and expand crop areas. Not in place inter-regional relations, lack of refining capacity. Several in the best position are those farmers who are closer to the Black Sea ports. They have the opportunity to work with a good profit by selling their products at higher prices.
"SP": — Is it possible that Russia will lose legal control over their farmland?
— More than possible. If we start this process in the next ten years is not cleaned up. In general, land assets in Russia are not counted. But he is much more than all of our gold reserves. 9 percent of the world's arable land and 40 percent of black earth is ours. China again is very eyeing our land. In the Far East, the Chinese completely drain the entire field, ruthlessly exploiting them. After their "lease" there for many years did not grow except weeds. Remember, two years ago, Rice let slip that the Russian "too much land." Given all this, in my view, the threat of losing control over part of the territory of the real.
"SP": — Can a term pressure on the government by the companies with foreign capital lead to the fact that the law will be changed and foreigners can officially purchase Russian farmland property?
— Easily. I do not want to consider this option. But if you do not stop the processes that we have today, then over time this prospect could become real.
Yevgeny Satanovsky also urging people not to relax.
"SP": — Interested whether, for example, the Arab farmers to work the land of Russia?
— Several Saudi companies have been negotiating for the organization of the agricultural production in the Altai. But natural forces intervened — in 2010, just as we remember, there was a strong heat, the effects of which are forest fires. The Arabs then feared rampant our unmanaged elements. The end of it, I can not say.
But in Ukraine the land bought up by foreign companies. There's something for sure in many arable lands is already an Arab "printing." In Ukraine, invested a lot of money out of Turkey, the Arab world, in Iran, there is an active proselytism, about half a million Ukrainians for the post-Soviet period, converted to Islam, and not only in the Crimea.
What cartridges Russia, we all know the saying: "The law that pole, where the turns, and there happened." Once upon a time in ancient Israel was the era of the judges, we have now the era of lawyers. And lawyers — they will understand how to avoid all the awkward questions for the ownership of the Russian land.
In general, we have to state truth: a holy place is never empty. And if we do not put things in order in their semi-abandoned arable lands, this order will eventually be more direct.