The greatest astronomical mystery solved: it is proved the presence of bases constituting three quarters of the Universe
The international team of scientists closer to the disclosure of the greatest astronomical puzzles: two experts independent of each other's methods have proved the presence of dark energy, which, as previously established, is about 74% of the entire universe, reports the BBC.
The first results of the study, which covered more than 200 galaxies, are published in the monthly bulletin notes the Royal Astronomical Society.
Disclosure of the phenomenon of dark energy will help explain things which have long puzzled astrophysicists: why the universe is expanding at an ever increasing rate.
One of the methods of the study was the measurement principle of the distribution of galaxies in space. They should be stored in astronomy is known as the "baryon acoustic oscillations". Another method — a measurement of the rate of formation of clusters of galaxies. Studies conducted by both these methods have confirmed the existence of dark energy and the acceleration of the expansion of the universe.
In theory, the principle of dark energy was formulated in 1998. Dark energy, scientists have recognized then, is one of the greatest astronomical mysteries: our world is made of it by three-quarters, but it is completely invisible, and the very fact of its existence managed to identify only indirectly: its impact on the state space.
According to scientists working in the space X-ray observatory XMM-Newton, only 5% of the mass of the universe falls on a usual baryonic matter, composed of protons, neutrons and electrons. The rest — this is dark matter (23%) and dark energy, the share of which in 2008 was estimated at 72%.
To explain why the expansion of the universe is accelerating, astronomers would have to either revise proposed by Albert Einstein's theory of gravitation, or admit that an additional form of energy into space.
"Dark energy acts as follows. Imagine that you have thrown the ball in the air, and he continues to fly up faster and faster, "- said study co-author Dr Chris Blake of Svinbernskogo University of Technology (Melbourne, Australia).
"The results show that dark energy — is a constant in cosmology, as suggested by Einstein. If it was all about gravity, we would not have seen these constant effects of all time "- he added.
The most recent data provided by the research project WiggleZ, which was launched in 2006 and completed — in 2011. This project used the data managed by the American agency NASA space telescope Galaxy Evolution Explorer (Galex) and the Anglo-Australian telescope mounted on Mount Slayding Spring in Australia. They are about the recession of the galaxies in the last eight billion years — more than half the age of the universe, if you count it, according to accepted notions of modern science, from the Big Bang.
Professor of Astrophysics University of Portsmouth (UK) Side by Nicholl, who was not involved in the study, said: "This is a big step forward. These guys — serious, leading scientists, and this result is expected for a while. They confirmed the existence of dark energy, which gives us an additional piece of information, which will strengthen the harmony of our theories and show the direction of future research. A growing number of astronomers would do that in the coming years. "
The paradoxical situation of science and the "hunter particles" on the ISS
"Today, in cosmology, a paradoxical situation in which scientists know the composition forming the universe of" substances "but do not know the nature of the two of them. This is very similar to the recipe for the tart dough, which refers to all known water and a white powder, to which it is desirable to add a lot of white sweet grains, that is flour and sugar "-" Nezavisimaya Gazeta ".
In an attempt to resolve the current "status quo" representatives of theoretical astrophysics in the theory of supersymmetry come up with the existence of some WIMP (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) — weakly interacting massive particles, which are almost the most mysterious dark energy, says the publication.
Magnetic Spectrometer $ 2 billion set on Thursday at the International Space Station, the newspaper The New York Post. The astronauts arrived at the ISS on the space shuttle Endeavour, mounted it to search for evidence of dark matter, antimatter and other phenomena that can not be detected by conventional telescopes.