Despite the drop in the interest of the international community to further flight into space, Russia continues work on designing a spacecraft for a flight to Mars. Project nuclear engine for it to be ready later this year.
This year, Russia will complete the project megawatt-class nuclear reactor for a new spaceship long range. Next year will be the project and the ship itself. This was in the past in Zhukovsky near Moscow International Air Show MAKS said General Director of the State Scientific Center of rocket Keldysh Anatoly Koroteev. "In 2011, to be completed preliminary design of the reactor facility, and in 2012, in line with the plan we have to complete the full project throughout the product — like a nuclear engine, and on the spacecraft itself," — he said. In support of this center Keldysh first presented at MAKS-2011 line elektrokompozitnyh materials for turbine nozzle and the "ship of the future." "The most difficult issue to date is the development of the cooler-radiator. This is a very busy part of the work of nuclear power. We are very advanced in this direction: in addition to appearance of the cooler-radiator at the stage of conceptual design, we finally chose a special fluids that can work in open space. I can not pronounce her name — it is a very complicated word, but the point is that it is organic-liquid composition, which provides resistance to radiation in space flight, "- said the academician Koroteev.
The very idea of using a nuclear reactor as a propulsion system for spacecraft, of course, not new. In the last century into orbit launched a number of satellites equipped with nuclear engines of low power (which, in particular, to monitor the movements of submarines). The need to work towards a nuclear space engines due to at least two factors. First, experts recognize that today's existing jet engines reached their limits. "Today we have the gas-guzzling vehicles. Imagine, for every 100 tons, departing from the earth, the payload of at most 3% converted. This is for all modern rockets. All the rest is discharged as combusted fuel. It is possible to increase this figure several times or several orders of magnitude? Turns out there. For example, using the propulsion engines, we could increase the specific impulse to about 900 seconds, there is still twice. And using to break up the ionized working body could reach the magnitude 9000-10 000 seconds, that is, would raise the specific impulse of 20 ", — said Anatoly Koroteev. Second, they do not provide the opportunity to develop deep space, such as missions to Mars. Despite the decline of interest in the world to the development of deep space exploration, Russia will still build this spaceship. "Our experts say that to prepare for the flight to Mars is necessary, but is not really fly on anything. It is absurd to fly to Mars on those vehicles and engines that are now there. The possibility of a flight to Mars should be combined with the creation of the ship, which will be a new nuclear power propulsion plant. And then we will fly this month, "- outlines the Russian senators situation in the spring of this year the former head of Russian Federal Space Agency Anatoly Perminov. And although at the end of April, "civil" Perminov at the head of Roscosmos has replaced the "war" Vladimir Popovkin, the relevance of the powerful nuclear power plants for new spaceships only increased. Proof of this was the words of Anatoly Koroteeva that this year's funding of this trend has increased. "Last year was hard — very little was allocated funds from the Russian Space Agency — only 70 million, of which 40 million we have given RSC" Energia "for the development of its program. But with this year's funding for the project increased. With the money all right now, "- said at the MAKS-2011 Head Space Center Keldysh.
The question is not only a mission to Mars, which is forecast to Roscosmos, will take place no earlier than 2035. There are various ways to treat the forecasts and predictions that one of the main causes of death of the Earth (and its people, respectively) could become a collision with a large asteroid. But the Americans in the last century began to try to create a "space umbrella", and now the European Commission has announced a tender for the execution of research projects related to the provision of the NEO Safety Earth. SRC Makeyev for this purpose, for example, offers the use of our space vehicles — Scouts "Caissa" and versatile percussion spacecraft "Trap", which are able to detect, investigate, and then directed to destroy nuclear explosion threatening Earth asteroids. In order to deliver them to the place now quite conventional boosters. However, if we talk about the constant "alert on the outer reaches of the" spacecraft will need new power plants.