Details of "Project 80" you do not learn from the military-technical guides and historical books. About tanks, overtaking speed boats on the water, not poison tales experienced warriors: despite the fact that the project was implemented in the metal, machinery and not credited to the Russian Army. People who have created a unique device and bring it to the brain, virtually remained alive
On the Structure of high-speed marine tank landing craft "Project 80," we told the staff "Vympel" (in those days — CB "Volgobaltsudoproekt") and Navashino shipyard, now Distinguished Engineer, and then — young engineers and mechanics. Technical data we obtained in the once hidden archives "Vympel". Only one question remained unanswered: who and for what purpose handy tank hydrofoil able to beat at least some moving object on the water?
This question could be asked to Colonel Murgalevu which was technical project and was the first military project supervisor. Pavel Murgalev — the famous personality. Specifically, he invented the Mine Action trawl for the T-OVER, put into service in 1942 and passed the entire Second World War. TK for high-speed tank landing craft provided for the ability to rapidly take on board the T-54 (later T-55), the speed of over 50 km / h and higher navigability, in particular the ability to move with waves up to 5 points. The principal and perhaps the toughest requirement was the ability to conduct fire directly with water.
Development of craft began in the late 1950s. Tank pontoon, kitted out his engine and hydrofoils, designed by CB "Volgobaltsudoproekt" directed by Misha Shchukin. The wings were designed in the CDB Hydrofoil factory "Red Sormovo" (now on CDB SEC them. RE Alekseev] — the same place where they were born-speed boats "Rocket" and "Meteor". Device has received and the engine of the "Missiles "- diesel M-50, capable of a peak power of 1200 hp
A set of high-speed tank landing craft consisted of a 2-boats. Like the ordinary non-motorized pontoons, they is hung on the sides of a tank, filled by special eyelets. On each boat had two cylinder, through which boats are lifted off the ground. In this position tank went into the water up to a certain draft.
In the transport position, the hydrofoils on boats were raised and quickly reminded splashes sports car. Raised and pinned to the board were tie-wings and the front and back of the tank. Upon reaching the water izmeschayuschego position halves fell and snap ties, forming a rigid cross bar at the bottom of the craft. Thanks screed boats could carry a tank, not to the sides. For the next moment cylinders are raised above the water tank and floats began displacement.
On the boat "Project 80" set slightly submerged wings design Rostislav Alexeyev. They provide the highest quality and hydrodynamic shallow draft, and as it should — the higher the speed. The main drawback of these wings is that they are contraindicated intense excitement
The propeller and the control column boats are aligned with the rear hydrofoil, for screw insertion depth can be adjusted. Watercraft waste at the depth of the displacement position, then absolutely fell hydrofoils. The cross-ties, submerged in water, even in the displacement position, also had a wing profile and helped aqua boats to rise above the surface.
Basically, that weighed on the boat tank and closing the wings-ties occurred by hydraulics and sought manual labor. Full acquisition of boats before going on the water took 45 minutes, and get rid of the pontoons, reaching the store, the tank could just 3 minute.
Life is only a moment
By 1966, at Navashino shipyard layout was made by hydrofoil boats on a scale of 1:2, which passed tests for moderate river Tesche. And in the future, the most experienced full-size model went on a huge water-in Sevastopol. "The crew of each machine was small, only two people — the driver and mechanic,— Says a leading special Navashino plant Valentin B. Galin — with one driver can control how your boat and watercraft in general. Management rudders and engines produced by electric motors and synchronized by cable. "
On the water flotation device "Project 80" is immediately exceeded the design speed, speeding up to 58 km / h But with the strength of the design appeared prepyadstviya. During the 1 st of the tests broke tie. Boats separated, and went under the water tank. By the time the machine has not had time to go deep, because neither the crew nor the tank itself is not affected. To investigate the incident in Sevastopol sent a group of professionals from the "Volgobaltsudoproekta." "We stuck to the wings, tie a huge number of sensors, fixed them with epoxy, was connected to the control equipment specially installed in the control room and out into the sea, — says Paul S. Karpov, who was then the designer category 1 strength in the sector. — In the end, found that in the area of maximum stress concentration on the wing was a propylene groove, which became the premise of the gap. "
Not everything was quite smooth and seaworthiness. Yes, the device is able to move through the water with waves up to 5 points, but only in the displacement mode, with a correspondingly low rate. Soar hydrofoil watercraft could with waves no more than 3 points. If you try to attack the moving sea underway pontoons almost dived into a wave. Water gets in vozduhopoglotiteli engines and diesels glohli. Typically, after a stop motors could rapidly make again. During the 1st test of the lives of the crew pontoons were under threat: vozduhopoglotitelya hatch closed, and the engine began to rapidly pump the air out of the interior. Fortunately, the mechanic fit guessed shut off the fuel and stop the motor.
Task which at first could be considered unenforceable — is firing from the water. Tank sights on such disposition is not designed shooting. Shooting with a roving ship on shore targets asks very different guidance systems and stabilizing devices. The shock wave generated during firing, has a huge dynamic load on the nodes themselves and pontoons, and on the mechanisms of their attachment to the tank. Should I read about the dangers to health of crews unfortified Dural boats …
It should be noted that it is so spectacular shots of pop's out of the hold of the landing ship tank PT-76 — it's just a beautiful show-off: shooting is reduced to idle more than half the powder charge. This is despite the fact that there are only the caliber of 76 mm 100 mm at Sproat T-54/55), and the first floating tank. Yet test f
iring on the move within the "Project 80" was conducted. Obviously, they have not met with success.
In the transport position, the hydrofoils, control column, propeller and wings podymali tie-up. Land-based hydraulic cylinders lift the boat above the ground, allowing the tank to move.
Proved problematic angle gear drive shaft — one that allows you to screw climb out of the water, coupled with the hydrofoil. Difficult node can not withstand, and his and then had to redo it. And yet, the designers managed to bring the car to the brain. Shipyards in Navashino, Rybinsk, Astrakhan was built 13 sets of high-speed craft tan-kodesantnyh "Project 80." Experimental battalion winged tanks based in Sevastopol. Walking rumors that some of the cars went to the Baltic. And in 1971, the project was canceled. Why — is not able to answer any of our current consultants. However, not hard to guess.
We fly over the Bosphorus
Autonomy high-speed craft "Project 80" was 350 km. 350 km on the water — it's not the same thing as 350 km on the road, at a minimum of judgments marine navigation. For sea voyages actually need a skilled navigator, and pontoon boats were placed just so the driver minder.
In the Black Sea days when the excitement is at most 3 points at a distance of 10 km from the coast, occur on the strength of three to four times a month. Because the same "Rocket" and "Meteora" ply there exclusively in the coastal zone. Taking into account the experimental space-based battalions craft "Project 80" designed for the rapid capture of the coast of the Baltic and the Bosphorus Straits. In this case, the cornerstone was not so much speed as the sudden appearance of unusual transport. In the case of the Bosporus, the tanks would have to overcome the banks (shallow strip running parallel to the coast at a distance of 5-10 km away) and the land on the steep rocky saved.
In the technical data provided by razlyubezno "Vympel", timidly silent mass of boats "Project 80." With an autonomy of 350 km apparatus must bear in store fuel for at least seven hours of travel. The engine has an output of each pontoon 1200 hp, while the ship "Comet", "horses" of 900. As follows, the fuel consumption in "draft 80" is more than 400 kg / h, of the order of 600 kg / h Seven hours required 2.8-3 tons of fuel in each boat. PMP pontoon park carried on Kraz-255, weighs 8.5 tonnes would venture to imagine thatboat "Project 80" with fuel, engine, gearbox and wings does not weigh less than 15 tons This is indirectly confirmed by the fact that it is not loaded on the KrAZ-255 and towed spetspritsepe.
That tank could carry on for himself two 15-ton boat, it should be installed mounting components, the weight of which, according to conservative estimates, will amount to 2-5% of the weight of the tank. It's about a ton of dead metal, which can be useful for the tank only once, but that he must carry with them at all times.
Suspension of the tank is not designed for such loads: it is believed that even the weight of the knife trawl KMT-b (800 kg) led to the destruction of Hassle front roller bearings. If the chassis will be designed for the extra weight of 30-40 m, then, freed from the ships after leaving the water, tank will have a very rigid suspension, resulting in a complete loss of its damping parameters. The tank will not be able to move normally on land and conduct fire.
Specific ground pressure tracks the T-54 (T-55, T-62) is about 0.78 kg / cm2. With floats suspended it to grow to 1.5-1.8 kg / cm2. Tanks with the world's largest ground pressure (German PzKpfw VI «Tiger") with a pressure of 1.04 kg / cm2 day 5 July 1943 were not able to go on the attack and waited around 8:00 just as the NIGHT MODE was raining and the ground softened a little. Given that the ground floor near the coast no different densities and usually withstand no more specific pressure 0,5-0,64 kg / cm2, it is clear that, once the shore, a tank with attached boats out of the water fails.
One is a tank
Yet the main problem "Project 80" — tactical. Amphibious operation involves the simultaneous role of several hundred or even a 10-s ships, moving on to serious graphics. On-saving value in a certain order should be planted tanks, infantry, artillery, engineers, facilities security. By the approximation of the battalion "Project 80" to the shore, he must hide behind the naval artillery fire. For ordinary landing craft this issue is resolved simply artillery piece itself is on the landing craft, part artpodderzhki on ships that move along with the amphibious ships. And what about the "Project 80"? Court artpodderzhki accompany such battalion fail, as the speed at them two or three times lower. Means they have to move out to a place of landing before. And in this case, lost the very meaning of high-speed landing tanks: enemy ships litsezrev artpodderzhki be ready meet a "winged tanks' fire.
What is the tanks without infantry, without artillery, without engineers, without the supply depot? Ammunition enough for 30 minutes of battle, if before the tanks did not pozhgut enemy grenade throwers. Perhaps the tank on a hydrofoil would suddenly come to a war zone as reinforcements landed a bit further off in the unguarded part of the coast. But, you see, it is very reasonable for such a fundamental part of the project.
The creators of "Project-80" focused on solving a very narrow task — to develop craft capable of transporting the water tank with the highest speed. They left out of sight of many of the technical and tactical issues that ultimately led to the collapse of the project. Certainly, the war in their own laws. And yet, "project 80" is a superbly luxurious and perfect work of Russian engineering, which, unfortunately, is destined to be forgotten. Together with the people who happened to behold the boat with our eyes, and the machines themselves are killed. The last "Save" pontoon, and more precisely its body is stored in a closed fund of the Museum of Armored Forces in Kubinka. If they wanted to return to the museum staff did not get all hung machine equipment, including the wings and tie, irretrievably lost. After all boats "Project 80" were made from high-quality and expensive aluminum.