Already have somehow forgotten the lessons of the Chechen events of 1994-1996., Fighting in severity with tanks. The losses in the middle of tankers were serious. Although the blame for this was not so much armor as an ill-conceived strategy for its implementation, in military circles and the industry began to consider the background of failure and concluded: tanks and other armored vehicles for their tactical and technical features — we have that in the NATO countries — in fact similar. That's only in the armies of Britain, the United States and certain other countries tanker ogneballistichesky wearing a protective suit, and ours — in fabric, though often oiled suit.
But the tanker in combat lurks double jeopardy: Unlike hand it is subject not only a fragmentation, and ognetermicheskomu defeat.
The writer-soldier Daniel Granik in the book "My lieutenant" describes something like the last moments of the crew: the tankers differ from the infantry so that they have the supplies in the few seconds before the car will break out, so that they may behold my death. In general, if a tank commander in the security set, it has a few seconds in order to get out without injury neobgorevshim of dying art. There is a real chance for salvation.
What is happening with the armor on the battlefield, which temper the defeat of combat vehicles? Legkobronnye fighting vehicles (infantry fighting vehicles, armored personnel carriers, self-propelled guns, etc.) may be affected by the price breaks your small caliber automatic cannon shells, cluster members, armor-piercing bullets 12.7 mm machine guns, grenades and RPGs.
The defeat of the tank can also be effectively with at least some direction. Even the frontal projection of the modern tanks are protected from the massive anti-tank weapons only 50-80 per cent, and on-board reserved only for course corners 15-20 °. In other cases, the hit will be accompanied by a break of your tools such as armor-piercing projectiles (BPS), cumulative shells, RPGs, ATGMs.
The main damaging factor affecting the crew BM and interior equipment for the transport of ammunition are projectile fragments ("shock core") and armor. At a penetration of tank armor-piercing shells are formed massive fragmentation flows — from 170 to 210 fragments weighing a total of 500 grams Approximately the same thing happens in the destruction of tanks, armored protection cumulative ammunition. Even if armor not punctured, there flow spall fragments from the inner surface or parts of the equipment.
In case of breaking legkobronnoy technology 7,62-12,7 mm caliber bullets in the space formed zabronevom flow fragments of armor and bullet cores with up to 110 units.
Striking fragmentation flow when the main armor penetration (to 70 percent) consists of a mass of fragments of 1-3 g and up to 600 m / s.
So Makarov, there is a greater possibility of defeat crews of armored vehicles fragments of this group due to the saturation of the flux and a wide field of expansion — up to 100 degrees.
When analyzing the disposition of defeats armored vehicles in the events in the Caucasus in 1994-1996. Tank-Automotive experts at the Head Office of the Ministry of Defense established cases where the tanks kept fighting capacity, having two or three breaking RPG (in one case even 11 penetrations), but the crews were absolutely out of action due to multiple shrapnel wounds.
Of course, the crews of tanks and combat armored vehicles need extra protection. A more effective means of protection against fragments are personal protective kits for crew members. By some estimates zabugornom, using crews of personal protective equipment sunk combat loss reduced to 2.5 times. Because in the armies of advanced countries, the personal body armor (NIB) — is an element of mandatory equipment crews of armored vehicles. In the U.S. army tank crew members M1 "Abrams" has since 1987 provided Myagenko Kevlar body armor fabric weight of 3.5 kg.
His views on the 1st of the Russian Federation recognized professionals in the field of armored vehicles Dmitry Rototaeva, "the greatest danger to the crew is a huge number of secondary fragments. Can protect their personal protective equipment. "
In the case of the introduction not only of body armor, but also a protective helmets for armor penetration from the rear hemisphere (more weakly protected part of the vehicle) provides virtually all protection a crew member, in its operating position.
In testing of body armor, located behind the metal armor BTR width 13.6 mm armor-piercing bullets mnogokalibernyh 12.7 mm machine guns it was found that at a penetration occurs flow fragments of 0.2 and weight of 12 grams up to 60 units. All the pieces were detained armor materials Rusar-5363, which is part of the vest. In the worst case, it is punched to 65 percent fibers.
Hand x-ray the affected area armor package can be seen that the whole flow fragments, some of which reached the mass of 12 g, withheld portion of the vest with a diameter of about 20 cm
By military doctors calculations showed that the crews of armored vehicles when fitted with protective clothing such as the number of the wounded 6B15 reduced by 2 times and 2.3 times the dead.
Another danger for the crews of armored vehicles — the flame of fire. Heat loss of the crews of armored vehicles occur in the event of fire, fuel or ammunition, and when using different opponent ognesmesi, including handicrafts.
Very effective means of protecting members of the crew — the use of overalls ognetermostoykih special fabrics that can withstand an open flame with temperatures up to 1.100 ° C and do not miss the warmth of the human body for 15-20 seconds.
A couple of years back in Russia on the basis of the latest fiber composite materials was created protection package for the crews of armored vehicles 6B15 at the best global models. The creative team under the control of the creator of this article was awarded the Prize of the Government of the Russian Federation. But to this day in modern suits wearing only one out of ten our tanker … We need urgently to renew equipment protective equipment as representatives of one of the most necessary and effective military specialties.