After the end of the second world vserasprostranennym view more fighting on the planet has become myatezhevoyna. This phenomenon has been comprehended and described the outstanding Russian émigré military theorist Eugene Messner in the 60-ies of the last century, but before the new, XXI century armies of the leading countries of the world have continued to prepare for the large-scale battles standard 1941-1945. And so were equipped with military hardware, first armored intended priemuschestvenno for large combined arms operations. But the troops, lured to the implementation of counterinsurgency and counter-terrorism tasks, this technique had to participate at all in the other fights. Vietnam to the United States and Afghanistan to the Soviet Union, it seems clear that armies are needed fundamentally new armored vehicles. But for service, for example, U.S. forces and units they began to arrive only during the second campaign in Iraq. Unfortunately, at the Russian military vehicles with inflated level of mine protection and yet not at all.
According to statistics, the loss of the U.S. Army, incurred as a result of landmine attacks and ambushes, during the second World War and the Korean War did not exceed 5 per cent. In Vietnam, the figure has more than 6 times (up to 33%). And in 2007, the year started programm bulk purchasing vehicles with inflated level of mine protection (MRAP), 63% of those killed during the fighting in Iraq, American soldiers and officers
died as a result of bombings by improvised explosive devices.
DECISION TIME PROVEN
Meanwhile, the first attack on the convoy of the U.S. Army in Iraq has already taken place on the third day of the war, March 23, 2003. Then, on the outskirts of An Nasiriyah Iraqis attacked a convoy of 18 cars 507 th Maintenance Company. It was the transport of 5-ton trucks M923 and modifications: tractor M931, technicals M936, fuel truck, tractor HEMTT, taschivshy faulty M931, and three HMMWV. None of the cars did not have body armor. Vpribavok available attacked the Yankees was only one piece of languid arms — 12.7-mm machine gun, which denied when trying to open it from the fire. In other words repairers could only fight back from personal weapons — rifles, M16 and M249 light machine guns. Such negligence in the organization of the posting of this column has cost dearly: in the battle of the 33 soldiers who followed in convoy, 11 killed, 9 injured, seven were captured.
Followed standard retaliatory move. In August, the 253rd company of transport were built 6-armed trucks Guntruck. The design of them turned out to be a classic, yet proven in Vietnam: a box of iron sheets width of about 10 mm and sandbags (in a dry climate is more or less the applicable decision). Armament — 12.7-mm machine gun in the cockpit hatches, once such a machine gun or a 40mm automatic grenade MK19 — in the body. The crew consisted of 5 soldiers volunteer 253rd company.
During the Vietnam War, faced with the need to defend the transport convoys, Americans have begun to equip trucks with machine guns everyday, reinforcing bead makeshift defense. At first it was just sand bags, then — steel armor plates from time to time — in the form spaced armor. A more "cool" way to fight the Vietcong ambushes can be mounted in the housing body M113 armored personnel carriers.
Exactly the same way the Yankees had to go to the original period of "Operation Iraqi Freedom". Since building Guntruck in transport units was carried out regular cars, in other words to them, as in Vietnam, we have to detach from performing regular tasks to supply troops in turn went to the least valuable specimens. In the photo you can behold Guntruck built on the basis of dump trucks and even tractors. Quite a lot of Guntruck was created on the chassis and non-armored versions of HMMWV.
But if the military trucks were able to more or less successfully to oppose the militants who fire convoy ambush, the explosion of an improvised explosive device crews almost never been protected. Because by 2007, turned programm massive purchases of cars with inflated level of mine protection (MRAP).
MRAP, started to patrol, escort convoys, transport and transfer of personnel in the criteria of the guerrilla war, has become one of the more relevant models of armored vehicles for the U.S. military since 1945. In just three years in the interest of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps and Special Operations Forces was purchased about 17.5 thousand of armored vehicles in the amount of above 26 billion dollars. For comparison: a massive South American M60 main battle tank was produced in an amount of 15 thousand copies (and exported to more than 20 countries). M1 Abrams tanks fired about 9 thousand. At the current time, the U.S. Army has 10 tyschami M113 and M2 Bradley (in fairness it should be noted that with only 1960 made more than 80 thousand copies M113).
In general, the true home of machines with enhanced mine protection is Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) — already half-forgotten government in Africa, where power belonged to the descendants of European colonizers. There's a lot of years, there was a severe guerrilla war. This small country with limited human resources willy-nilly had to save the life of their own fighter.
Initially in Rhodesia tried to increase the sustainability of artisanal Lend Rover jeeps to undermine, but quickly found out that the alteration of a standard machine — it's the path to a dead end. We need to create a special armored vehicles with the introduction of mass-produced components and assemblies. Ways to reduce the harmful effect of anti-tank mines and improvised bombs were generally clear. Here are the main features of the device with reinforced armored mine-protected:
— V-shape bottom hulls, it is very likely rise above the road — these measures have allowed to reduce the impact and divert energy from the body of the blast;
— very probable removal of hulls powerful design nodes, which in themselves are undermining the striking elements: engine, boxes, pendants;
— full or partial implementation of serial commercial truck chassis that lowers the total cost of machinery and the cost of running them.
After winning a majority in dark Rhodesia baton developing machines with enhanced mine protection has taken South Africa, compulsory to conduct a long border war. A typical step in the realization of the concept of MRAP was the emergence in the 1978 machine Buffel, the design of which was inscribed a very organic whole Rhodesian and South African experience in the creation and implementation of sustainable undermine armored personnel carriers. The next step may be to consider the development of the 1995 car Mamba. Its more advanced version of the RG-31 Nyala is used in 8 countries, and adopted the U.S. Marine Corps received 1,385 RG-31 vehicles. The future development of armored vehicles in this series — RG-33 The Pentagon has ordered a number of 1735 copies.
In the American armed forces in the current time regardless of weight and size, there are three categories of machines such as MRAP. BBM category I — the most compact. They are designed to patrol in th
e town of criteria. Category II — more languid machines that apply to escort convoys transporting personnel, transportation of the wounded, for use as engineering machines. Comparable not numerous category III armored personnel carriers represented Buffalo, specially created for the mine area. They are equipped 9-meter crane for remote neutralization of explosive devices.
In the U.S. Armed Forces over vserasprostranennymi types of MRAP armored vehicles were cars International MaxxPro and Cougar. MaxxPro were ordered U.S. forces in the amount of 6444 pieces, Cougar several modifications — 2510.
Cougar is presented in a biaxial and triaxial versions. In addition to the crew of 2 persons, Cougar 4×4 can carry 6 people, in the embodiment 6×6 — 10. The machine was developed in South Africa, its creation in the United States engaged in the company Force Protection Inc (housing) and Spartan Motors (chassis). Cougar has a monocoque body, engine Caterpillar, Allison automatic transmissions and continuous bridge of Marmon-Herrington. It is armed with a remote-controlled turret with a 12.7-mm machine gun or a 40mm automatic grenade launcher. Staffing booking protects people from being inside the fire 7.62×51 mm NATO ammunition from a distance of 5-10 meters, and at blasting charge, equivalent to 13.5 kg of TNT under one of the wheels and the 6.7 kg — under the body. Additionally likely hinge active armor and latticed screens for protection against anti-tank grenade launchers.
International MaxxPro also comes in a 2-variants, both with a capacity of 6-8 people. In size and number of machine axes quite monotonous, and the only difference is in the engine. Just MaxxPro engine has a capacity of 330 liters. with., and diesel MaxxPro Plus provides 375 liters. s. Accordingly, the base load capacity options — 1.6 tons, while the MaxxPro Plus — 3,8 tons. Taking into account that both the armored car can carry monotonous number of Marines (4-6), the increase in capacity at the MaxxPro Plus allows you to achieve greater mobility, or cars, or strengthen its security at the expense of other parts of the sample. MaxxPro is built on the classical scheme: bronekapsuly installed on a commercial truck chassis with an ordinary ladder frame and beam axle having a spring suspension.
The use of machines such as MRAP has sharply, almost 90 percent lower loss from explosions. According to official data, the U.S. DoD in Iraq in May 2008, 11 soldiers were killed as a result of landmines on the roads, while in May 2007, the same criteria were killed 92 American fighter. But migraine Pentagon officials have not diminished. It was found that the solutions which have shown themselves fully justified in Iraq, do not work in Afghanistan, which will soon move the active U.S. Army.
Unlike Iraq, where MRAP moved on the roads and desert terrain in Afghanistan, they had to act in the mountains, narrow canyons, and in the criteria actually cross-country. Here languid machines with the highest center of mass, and hence, prone to tip over, unable to go fast. As can be seen, the risk of damage in case of an ambush. In addition, Afghan guerrillas have developed a strategy to combat the MRAP, which is bound to affect the statistics of losses.
The first step to overcome this situation was the creation of several light version MRAP. In September 2008, Navistar has received an order to design and build more compact, lightweight and mobile versions MaxxPro, specially designed for Afghanistan. Bimbo machine received the title of MaxxPro Dash. It is 20 cm shorter than the base option, and almost two tons easier. The crew remained the same: driver, commander and gunner, and landing down to 4 people. Cancel the mobility provided by the engine capacity of 375 liters. s. The agreement on the establishment and creation of 822 MaxxPro Dash armored vehicles worth 752 million dollars and was completed by February 2009.
But the release of MaxxPro Dash was less than a half-measure, designed as it is possible to construct a faster standard applicable to actions in Afghanistan's criteria. Not stopping there, the Pentagon announced a tender for the development of the second generation of MRAP armored vehicles. The winner in June 2009 was the company Oshkosh, presented a machine M-ATV.
This armored vehicles, providing the same level of protection for the crew and troops, and that the first generation of MRAP, a small-sized and adapted for movement on rough terrain. M-ATV is equipped with a weight of 11.3 tons (MaxxPro Dash weighs almost 15 tons, and the MaxxPro Plus — more than 17.6 tons), armed with a Caterpillar C7 engine capacity of 370 liters. s. and automatic transmission, independent suspension type TAK-4 (a unique development of Oshkosh).
The centralized system allows the machine to swap the wheels to maintain mobility in the damaged tires. According to the developers, M-ATV able to continue to move more than a kilometer in combat injuries lubrication and cooling of the engine. M-ATV accommodates 5 people, including the driver and gunner. It is equipped with universal turret, which can be installed on various types of machine guns, 40-mm automatic grenade launcher or anti-tank systems TOW. Regardless of the situation is a consuming either manually or remotely.
To reduce logistics costs Pentagon chose M-ATV as the only type of armored fighting vehicles with inflated mine protection level of the second generation, as the first MRAP bitty park spawned some difficulties in the maintenance and operation. As of February 2010, total orders for the M-ATV over 8 thousand units.