Getting a significant part of the transmitted Japan to Europe (and back) of the documents was made possible by the development of international telegraph services. Despite the fact that the telegraph early twentieth century allowed the exchange of information between countries with greater speed than by mail, at the telegraph was also a significant drawback. Telegraphic correspondence (including details of state significance), sent by the cable network, without much difficulty intercepted by relay stations. Thereafter, the resulting information only needed to decipher.
How come that the Russian relaxed able to access the Japanese secret disk imaging? In order to realize the system, briefly outline the scheme of development of the telegraph network of the island between Japan and European countries.
The first telegraph line between Europe and Japan can be considered laid in 1872 by the Danish cable majestically northern company. He has promoted associate with the Copenhagen Libau (Latvia) through the Baltic Sea. Then the overhead wire passed through the entire Russian empire: from Moscow via Omsk and Irkutsk to Vladivostok, and again on the sea floor — came to Nagasaki. In 1873, the telegraph line Nagasaki linked with Hong Kong.
In parallel, the northern route Britons (including eminent Eastern Telegraph Company) established south telegraph way. Back in the 50s of the XIX century was completed the laying of telegraph lines under water between Great Britain and France, Marseille and Malta. In the 60 years of the telegraph linked Malta, Alexandria, Bombay and Aden. In addition, British companies paved overhead telegraph cable between Karachi, Bombay and Madras. In 1871, the British-Australian Telegraph Company closed a Chinese submarine cable (dragging it from Madras in Hong Kong) with the line of the North.
Legal regulations concerning methods of communication by telegraph disk imaging, was worked out at a conference in St. Petersburg, in the formation of internationality Telegraph Union (Japan joined the Union in 1879). One of the main principles of the Telegraph Union was formed providing lurking transmitted by telegraph lines correspondence. With all of this included in the alliance members reserved the right to delay despatch, information which presumably could harm state security, public order, morality or simply illegal. The decisions of this conference were in full force and during the Russian-Japanese war.
Aspiring to a monopoly in the land of the rising sun reaches the majestic North Company in 1882, the Japanese government agreed to transfer its exclusive rights to build the new CW channel with China for 30 years. Fear that the Japanese government to encroach monopoly position in the region, the northern and eastern Lofty company, constrained them in 1883 to sign a contract between themselves, which would define the basic principles of their work in China and the land of the rising sun. And in 1899, the company signed a contract with the official Japan in which majestic northern Telegraph company received a monopoly on the relationship between Japan and China.
Challenges in the transmission disk imaging to Japan from Europe began with the beginning of the Russian-Japanese war. As the warring sides used the same Trans-Siberian line connection, the Russian fear, like information, marching from the capital city of Vladivostok and other military bases in the Far East, has not penetrated into the country of the rising sun. Living in the country of the rising sun, in turn, also did not venture to take this line of reasoning, that dispatches would be intercepted and decrypted on the relay Fri, territorially were on Russian soil. Consequently, line Vladivostok — Nagasaki ended the war began to act. Because the people of the country of the rising sun preferred to use the telegraph British companies, getting the right information on the band Malta — Aden — Singapore — Formosa (Formosa — a peninsula in the Pacific telegraph linking Japan with mainland China).
Since the beginning of the Russian-Japanese War Telegrams from Europe to Japan was small, but rapidly growing number of correspondences. Just across the Formosa during the war years was received more than a thousand of mails (and this is only just in the department of the Ministry of War, and after all was still and diplomatic correspondence). Despite the fact that Japan has followed with great care for the safety of her sent to Europe the information is not dozing Russian counter-intelligence: she was able to do and the interception and decryption of telegraph correspondence Japanese diplomats. Interception disk imaging purely at the technical level may be established on all steps of transmission: the telegraph, or a relay Fri same in any part of the cable.
In the Municipal Archives of the Russian Federation is stored at least 350 Japanese telegrams time Russian-Japanese war. More than half of them — this is the correspondence of the Japanese embassy in France, Tokyo, and other documents are correspondence Japanese missions to other countries in Europe. The very first document of that specific collection of Russian intercepted telegram is a former ambassador in Russia Kurin French ambassador Motono on April 22, 1904, can be regarded as a later document, dated March 12, 1905 (Telegram Japanese Minister of Foreign Affairs Komura in Tokyo the same Motono in Paris) . In general, the Russian counter-intelligence, one way or another, has gained access to most of the Japanese-French correspondence during the war with the state of the rising sun.
Interception of the Japanese telegraph correspondence engaged in the Far East as part of the most northern of the company, and the attention of the Japanese is not lost. The scandal was not a bit broke after commissioned by order of the Minister Komura investigation: it was clear on close contact Russian agent in Shanghai, collusion with bureaucrats Northern Telegraph Company. With stately hard to hush up the scandal was continued in 1906, when the court has, in the course of which were clarified noteworthy details. It turns majestic northern company indeed trafficked from the Russian telegraph office attache Japanese telegrams which are also translated into the Russian language and push off up the chain of command. And in the days of, for example, the battle of Tsushima Russian officers were actually hiding in the office of the Northern Telegraph Company.
Acted in the same way and the enemy's counter-intelligence: preserved in the archives of the Japanese documents impressively demonstrates that approximately May 1904 Japanese Consul in Shanghai, recruiting a large number of agents received dispatches Russian General Staff of the Chinese for their own agent.
Summarizing, we can say that all of these wrongful acts in relation to the adopted Telegraph Convention in 1875 in St. Petersburg, of course, do not honor nor Russian, nor the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun. But such were the laws of war: win
ning, as always, the one who had the information, and about the legality and acceptability of the methods of production of its thinking in the least …