Developing effective methods of evacuating the crew of the destroyed tank, the designers have come to the paradoxical solution — faster just may leave the destroyed tank that crew that is not in this. Question, obviously, about the remote-controlled combat vehicles.
In the 30 years of the last century, such machines were usually called teletanks. Teletank — it's a tank, radio controlled, made on the basis of serial light tank. The main teletanks in Russian Union were the TT-18 and TT-26, based on the T-18 and T-26, respectively.
For example, the 217th Independent Tank Battalion of the 30th Armored Brigade of chemical consisted of a pair of combat groups of the T-26. Each pair was tank control, it denotes the index of the TU, and the teletank — TT. In the tank TU in the crew was an operator who ran on the radio the second machine. It could go a mile and a half ahead of the tank controls and had a typical service. Such tank could put a smoke Zahav — for this it was a special tank. The designers meant that the tank can deliver closer to the enemy and spray chemical weapon without endangering the crew. He was put on a flamethrower, which also cut one team on the radio. There was a machine gun DT. And, in the end, there was a special modification teletanks, not having the tower, but it has a reinforced armor and specially made chassis, significantly more robust than that of the T-26 series. With such a tank to the enemy pillbox could deliver a special box, mailed to 30 mm. And in it — 500 kg of explosives. Team on the radio was set in place a mechanism to drop the bomb. From hitting the ground cut one fuse with a delay of 15 minutes — during this period of time the tank backing needed to take on non-dangerous distance. The explosion itself the most terrible charge rushil concrete pillboxes on four floors down.
The picture shows the tank commander who fought in the TT-26 Victor Scherbitsky near the tank T-26, on the basis of which the Soviet Union created teletanks.
Tie rods and levers tanks were operated pneumatically: Worked compressor pumps air into a special container, and then compressed air is supplied to the pistons manipulators. The process is controlled electromechanical relays include radio commands. Transmission equipment allows you to manage the sixteen parameters. The operator worked with the remote, which was on the front panel of about 20 buttons, four in a row. First button "Tovs" — preparing for the implementation of one of the military command, the second button "Fire" — ognemetanie (or areas of infection), the fourth button — "Smoke", staged a smokescreen. Next in the 2nd, 3rd and fourth rows placed buttons, asking for management TT tank. First button — start the engine, the second — low gear, the third to sixth — the transfer from the first to the fourth, seventh — reverse, the eighth — a tower on the left, the ninth — the tower on the right, the tenth — turn the tank on the left, Eleven button — On the right. Right above the keys on the front panel of the console was a reddish light — turn the remote control. At the same level as the left corner — a transition of the switch from the 1st to another radio channel. With all of this tank could manage, and everyday driver, were kept inside all regular controls of T-26. Outside teletanks different from the serial presence on the roof of the tower 2-armored glasses that protect against the destruction of the findings whip antennas and their isolation when hit by small arms fire from the guns.
In an effort to anticipate all the designers have built into the control system even protection from the "revolt of machines." The tank could catch up, open a special box at the back and drown the engine, using ordinary way short to ground. In the event of the reach of TT tank specifications, in the TT machine in 30 seconds, the activation of the command "stop". The tank stopped and waited with the engine running another team from TU, which by that time should approach the TT distance sustainability of the radio channels (using two channels — HF and VHF — between which you can switch).
In the Russian Union had only two battalions teletanks. One of them was placed under Exactly, and it was bombed by the Germans in the first months of the war. The second was based near Yaroslavl. Some time it economized — the equipment was hidden.
But during the Battle of Moscow equipment was removed, put the crews and the former teletanks went into battle.
Teletanks experiments were conducted on the basis of the BT-7.
UNITY managed the BT-7.
In the Soviet-Finnish war of 1939, 40gg. for the first time in the history of Russian troops were used radio-controlled tanks HTT-26 (chemical teletank) — 26, in some sources it is called OTT-26 (flamethrower))
Second and probably the last time the introduction teletanks occurred in 1942 at Sevastopol. February 27, our troops have used remotely operated wedgies. It was an old car of the T-27, derived by the time of the combat units and remained exclusively in the training units.
Weapon tankettes removed, and instead placed the powerful charge of TNT. Wedgies controlled by wire. The remote control equipment was created in Moscow in the factory number 627 Commissariat electrical industry under the control of the military engineer grade 3 AP Kazantsev. Kazantsev later became a famous science fiction writer. In the Crimea was delivered 6 of tankettes. Happy February 27 wedgies released on the German positions. 2 small tanks exploded on the enemy positions, 2 more blown up before reaching the goal, and 2 Germans destroyed by artillery fire.
More remote controlled tanks into a sublime Russian war were not applied. After the war, HBTU conducted experiments with remote-controlled tank T-34-85, but they ended in complete failure. These experiments, the introduction of radio-controlled tankettes Wehrmacht in the years 1942-1945 showed that the creation of the tank cyborg completely real, but with all this teletank by several orders of losing manning the tank on the aspect of performance / price. So the introduction of tanks, cyborgs can be only in special cases: for sabotage, clearance, radiation survey at the very location of infected sites, etc.
Teletanks created and based on other machines — with all this, perhaps the most impressive was the project telemechanical breakthrough tank around the heavy pyatibashenny T-35.
T-35 — frustrated teletank.
Similar developments took place in other countries. In Germany as a "land torpedoes" performed slipper with the resounding title of "Goliath", it "special machine 303. " The introduction of wire control makes the machine unsafe. In the end, instead of using the "Goliath" as intended during the battle for Berlin, his primitive way pererablotali in tankette.
The tank (self-propelled guided bomb) in the tank museum in Kubinka.
In 1942, the UK began to experience its own version of the "land torpedoes". The car, named "Scorpio" was a remote control. She moved a means of eight wheels and, curiously, was floating. But further tests if the British did not get.
The concept of controlled tanks was the product of trench warfare. But the second global war showed that modern combat actions are faster agile character, for which responsiveness and ability teletanks were missing. Right before the end of XX century only, although more colorful representatives were teletanks Russian rovers.