November 22, 2012 1:09
Ha far north, according to the Russian folk tradition, is a beautiful island surrounded by the waters of the Sea, Ocean, and on it stands the world mountain. With this fabulous place is often equated island of Buyan. For the ancient Slavs island of Buyan — a sacred concept, because it is presented as a "first earth" has popped up among the waves of the primeval ocean. Here is the world axis and has a source of eternal life.
On the island of Buyan, speaking in symbolic language, stored, "seeds" of all living things. Here are concentrated powerful forces: Spring Rain, thunder and wind. Buyan to live the most ancient creatures, birds and animals, such as snakes, all snakes senior, the bird, "the mother all the birds." In the center of the island of Buyan, under the mighty oak world that connects the three worlds — the world of the underground, terrestrial and celestial, is a stone Alatyr ie "All the stones of stone." From under Alatyr-beaten stone fountains of living water — they evoke nature, grant land yields. Under it which all the rivers. It stores the source of all things on earth, there is nothing in the world harder than the stone. No wonder for centuries they "lock" all vows and conspiracies. Here is hidden power of a mighty "and force that there is no end."
Fantastic island with all his property was to have a tangible "reflection", and some researchers have compared with the earthly island Buyan Ruyan, which according to legend was one of the largest Slavic shrines — Arkona with the temple of the god Svyatovit, patron of the land and war.
Ruyan Island (German Rügen) lies against the Danish coast and covers an area of nearly 1,000 square meters. miles, all of its banks and cut with deep secluded bays and coves, and some place names of God or Holy Stone Mountain — wonderfully reminiscent of the mythical stone — Alatyr.
On the northern tip of the island, on a small peninsula Vitov, found the remains of the sanctuary Svyatovit, public and residential buildings. It was there and was once a fortified city built by Arkon. He was standing on a high steep bank, from which appear white chalk
rock. Under it lapped the dark blue sea. By boat floated numerous merchant ships and fishing boats, as Ruyan past the island was an ancient trading route from the North Sea to the Baltic. Here and now is a very busy shipping — are passenger ships, huge sea ferries, fishing trawlers.
In the central square Arkona was a wooden temple, surrounded by a palisade. Large gate led into the yard. Inside the sanctuary adorned statue Svyatovit. According to the Danish chronicler Saxo Grammaticus XII century, the idol that was taller than a man, with four heads, sitting on four, separated by their necks, and a mill. The eyes of the idol were addressed, thus, on all four sides. His head was shaved his beard and hair cut short, according to the custom of local people.
In his right hand was holding Svyatovit horn inlaid different metals, which is annually filled with wine, the left hand was bent dugoyu and rested against the side. Clothes down to his knees and was connected closely with them. When the molten images was a huge sword with scabbard and handle, decorated with silver and exquisite carvings, saddle, bridle, and many others dedicated to him things. In addition, the temple was adorned with horns of different animals.
Saxo Grammaticus says that the island had three shrines dedicated to the gods Ruevitu, Porevitu and Porenutu, Arkona and besides, there were several large villages, the names of which they appear in today's campuses Rugen: Poozerits, Gustov, Zelin and others. These names are the Wends — Slavic people of the Baltic Sea. Svyatovit name (or Svantevit) is formed from two words: "Swan ones" — holy and "Wit" — light. God — the warrior-for it contained a white horse with a long mane and tail, never cropped. The High Priest of God Svyatovit alone and had the right to enter into the temple.
After harvesting the idol brought as an offering cakes and a large round cake of sweet dough, the height of the human growth. After the solemn blessing of all ruyansko th, or, as some say, the name of the people of Paradise Svyatovit, sacred festival ended with an orgy: do not eat all the victims — pies brought Svyatovit and drink like crazy, would offend the deity. As the broadcaster of the divine will the High Priest had extraordinary influence on all ransky people. The temple was famous for the splendor and wealth, collected over the years honoring Svyatovit and treasury high priest guarded three hundred warriors.
Norddeutscher author chronicles II. Adam of Bremen writes respectfully about the Slavs, the immediate neighbors of the Germanic tribes, "These people are extremely hospitable and above all honor their parents. Among them will never meet a person left in the lurch or poverty. If someone is ill or weakened by old age, he is hired to care. Hospitality and care for the elderly are considered the Slavs first virtue, "and relatively Ruyan he adds:" Ru-Jan — very brave Slavic tribe, without which, according to the law, not to take any public regulation. They are afraid because they are in close relations with the gods, or rather demons, paying tribute honoring more than others. "
Ruyan long time controlled the Baltic coast to the benefit of their own trade. Danish pirates have sought to capture the island. But fortresses Akron could not take any desperate pirates, nor brave Vikings. However, in 1043 the Danes destroyed Slavic naval base Enibor (Emburg). Then Ruyan Prussians and appealed to the Norwegian kings Harald III severely, so named because of the fact that he was quick to violence. All remember that Harald left a young man from Norway to Russia, where he was Yaroslav the Wise, and married his daughter Elizabeth, which folded the poem "Visy joy." Back in Norway, he soon became its rule autocratically, but claimed and Denmark. In alliance with the normal vezhskim konung decided Ruyan avenge the instigators of all the misfortunes in the Baltic.
In 1050 soldiers attacked Harald Crucible was a Danish-Frisian town of Hedeby, which was a major share-transfer point products in Eastern and Western Europe, known as the "Scandinavian Corinth." In 1066, it completed the destruction venedskie pirates. For a time, the Danish trade was paralyzed. But in 1168 the Danish king Valdemar I guile and cunning managed to break into the fortress and overthrow ranskuyu wooden god Svyatovit waves in the blue sea. The fall of the temple and burned Svyatovit occurred on June 15, the day of St. Vitus Cathedral, and the will of the Danish king Valdemar I at the spot where stood the idol was built Christian church of St. Vitus.
Over the past centuries Ruyan, who became Rügen, alternately owned by the Danish, Swedish and German princes. At Cape Arkona clearly visible remains of the giant earthworks — the ancient fortress of the Baltic Slavs (Wends). Judging from the remains of huts and household items, people who lived on the island, were expert fishermen and hunters who have successfully engaged in farming and crafts.
In the past, the health resort of Rügen became East Germany: here on the shores of picturesque beaches with golden built and resorts, camping and pioneer camps. In addition, Rugen — State Reserve, where preserved, many species of plants and animals which have disappeared in other European countries. The coastal cliffs are found seals and giant tortoises. In warm winter swans bays. And in the blue sky can be seen soaring sea eagles.