Prokhanov. Sergey V. I saw your amazing plant that is rightly considered a phenomenon associated with the sixth technological structures, plant, which in its organizational and technological nature comes out of all of today's Russian enterprises. I would like to understand the forms, which are now accepted your plant is the result of evolution or is it a breakthrough, a revolution, it is the accumulation potentials, abilities and knowledge that will enable you to take a leap and jump evolutionary links?
Sergei Maxine. Of course, Alexander Andreyevich, in our factory are observed evolution continuity. His story is our factory from a small company selling German optical instruments and appliances, founded in 1850 in Moscow by Theodore German Schwabe. In the XIX century, except optical instruments company produced a wide range of medical and surveying instruments. Schwabe was personally acquainted with prominent physicians of the time — GA Savostitskim and NV Sklifosovsky.
In 1912, the company "Schwabe" has undergone a reorganization and became a public company. It is interesting and historically logical that after nearly one hundred years, in 2010, the Ural Optical and Mechanical Plant was replaced by a form of property, becoming a public company.
After the October Revolution, the company was nationalized. In the 30s it was actually the only company in the country that can fulfill any order for the production of military goods optical profile.
Actually ural history of the company began in the years of the Great Patriotic War. In October 1941 it was decided to evacuate the plant in Sverdlovsk. 28 days have been completely removed equipment, laboratory companies, materials, semi-finished products, tools, technical documentation, as well as the library of the company "Schwabe". The Urals left 10,000 workers and their families. In general, the evacuation of the plant took 10 levels, estimated at 630 cars. During the war, the plant produced and made the front of tens of thousands of optical devices.
In the postwar decades, the company has been actively involved in the restoration and the subsequent development of the country's industry. Plant — one of the pioneers of the production of laser equipment. It released the first production laser rangefinder, the first aeronautical station laser range finding and target designation. Ural Optical and Mechanical Plant was included in the Soviet space program. Thus, our company has a rich and unique history with many glorious pages, victories and successes. We have a tremendous tradition and continuity.
At the same time, at the present historical stage, it took a whole new approach, a new solution, a new philosophy. For such a development have encouraged market competition, especially in the fields of civil products, where we were quickly overtaken China, where the winners were the countries of Europe and America. In the most difficult 90 years, with a shortage of funds in the economic collapse we started the modernization and development. We have a team that knows the laws of the market. There are young engineers tend to be creative. There was a medium that defined the need for this jump. And we have done.
AP If it was a jerk, then how much effort it took shape? We athlete going for a record, a warrior going to exploit, connect power, knowledge, abilities, and will. What are the components formed your dash? What does it mean to you personally? As he worked on you and how you changed along with the plant?
SM You mentioned athlete, going on record. I am active in sports, like most factory workers. You talked about the soldiers marching on a military breakthrough. I served in the army. And my whole career: teaching, getting started — were associated with a feeling of important tasks. With the mobilization of forces, with the desire to eat, along with the optimistic belief that no matter how hard and difficult it may be, the goals can be achieved.
But, of course, I do not attribute the success of our factory only my abilities and strong-willed aspirations. I was surrounded by brilliant team and surrounds. Our success — the result of a team effort. It is our collective discovery, collective creation.
I repeat: we are spurred market. We understood that if we do not actively develop, lose and disappear. And at this critical competition, we have always sought to be the first. In terms of market contractions wins leader: the smartest, bravest, most cautious, the most successful and the most equipped.
Although, of course, the market offers a variety of behaviors. Someone in the market tends to be first, and some prefer to remain forever the second because the first takes the blows, the risks often can not withstand the first of these battles, breaks down and disappears. Then comes the second to the forefront.
But for us, this second option is not acceptable, we are trying to be leaders. I do not idealize their plant. Do not idealize holding "Optical Systems and Technologies", which includes our factory. We are not an absolute leader in the global market. But I follow the philosophy of leadership. And all of our many thousands of, I think, too, has adopted this philosophy.
Every worker coming into the plant, should one day win at least some, albeit very small and tiny, victory. Work at the plant such as ours — is a continuous, steady accumulation of victories. Similarly, the people living in its history. He is day-to-day, year after year, century by century accumulating victories, overcoming defeat. And, in the end, it is the people-Victorious.
Alexander PROKHANOV. My introduction to modern Russian industry does not bring much happiness. Many factories are in ruins, entire industries have almost disappeared. Other plants do not burn and smolder. But your business is shining on the crowd. And I ask myself: this is a special case, an exception to the rule, or is it signs of a revival? This gorgeous ensemble workshops, this delightful equipment, this new organizational philosophy — it is a sign that the long-awaited Russian development started? Who do you think: lucky chosen one, the black sheep, or you znamenuete its existence began the development of Russian?
SM I also see the devastating result 90s, picture degradation and de-industrialization. But I am an optimist by nature. And focus their will focus on the trends and interests of revival. Learn, and I welcome the economic industrial programs that are offered defense industry; resources that the government is investing in these programs: these huge amounts of money, organizational effort, this will, which appeared at the country's leaders. Began a long-awaited re-Russian army. This provides us a robust defense orders — we get government money. We have achieved considerable success, established in the market opto-electronic systems for military vehicles. Our products are being used in the newest planes, helicopters, ships of the Navy and the Army technology, make this technique more competitive. And her many countries are willing to buy.
I understand that the resources of our country are not limitless. I think that they should be focused on the most important and topical subjects. Resources should not be flat, but a thin layer spread throughout the defense industry, and should be directed to where they will provide a fast-break, the greatest efficiency will create growth points, which are then pulled out for themselves and other areas of the military-industrial complex.
We are developing our plant systemically. It is impossible to master cutting-edge, ultra-precise products not saturate the-art machine park ultra-precise machine tools. You can not use these super-expensive, sverhtehnologichny machines without a supermajority, mo
rally equipped workers and engineers. It is impossible to bring the plant overqualified workers and engineers, without providing them with the conditions of labor, material and moral, which are superior to those conditions which they would have received outside the factory in the civilian sector. Only by adhering to all of these systemic conditions gives a synergistic effect.
I want to emphasize the need for social services. We have an amazing sports complex focused on athletics, and in this complex and involved half old, two-year kids, which later grow Olympic champions. Kindergartens, health care, pensions, mortgage special project — a plant. All of this — the necessary components that enable us to produce modern systems and complexes.
AP You have acquired a unique — probably the best in the world — the machines. You draw these machines in the line. And these machines and created a line of them placed you in a very complex management environment. In this environment, there is a mass management of various large and small discoveries, transforming the entire plant into a living, breathing, ever-changing harmony and symphony. In your plant is something musical, harmonious aesthetic. Technical processes are connected with the psychological. Intellectual with a moral. Where did this organizational environment? You got it together with machines in the form of special instructions? You watched it copied from western plants? What is the secret of this organizational structure?
SM We have been studying and studying the experience of the best foreign firms. Learning from the best plants in Russia. We seek out and borrow the best of competence. But foreign firms are carefully preserve their organizational innovation. This is the secret to a greater extent than technological secrets. Therefore, the organizational management structure, based on information technology, we have created ourselves. Looked at what elements of the system should develop, improve, to increase productivity and efficiency. Decide which elements of the system are old-fashioned, outdated, stir, hurt production. The entire plant is run through information technologies that manage resources personnel. Move huge amounts of electronic data and documents.
I want to emphasize that this system was not imposed from above, she was not born initially, did not come together with machines. It was created. It was created by people, the human mind. It was created by our mistakes and successes. Each person took and takes part in the creation, improvement of the management structure. He goes out with her, even if small, suggestions and inventions that are sure to be considered. If they are feasible and useful, that are built into the manufacturing process.
The man in our factory does not feel attachment to the machine, and the creator, host. Thousands of various proposals received from the staff and locked. Each of their ideas and discoveries gets promotion, bonuses, we encourage people financially. The man who made the discovery, improvements are becoming known throughout the plant. He is spoken of electronic screens placed in divisions. Such a person we award, we move forward. Still, even the small inventions, we do not let the wind, and take into account and patenting. And do not make the mystery of our achievements. We want to win our knowledge and serve the common cause, common development.
AP What struck me in your plant that I have rarely seen visiting other production — it's amazing plasticity, flexibility, endurance, the ability to immediately readjust to respond to the slightest changes in the environment. You respond quickly to changing market conditions, new trends in the field of military technology. Your plant is not something I introduced once arisen, which has acquired the shape of the crystal, but a living, organic, capable of producing shoots, each time a new dress and new foliage. I was lucky enough to lay with you a new building, which will be made, including, and systems for the new generation fighter. Where to now seeks your plant?
SM Our plan is not an impromptu blind instant reaction. We all think, analyze, look into the trend. Every year, tens consider business plans. We remember the days when the Soviet Union was destroyed. In economics and politics dominated the assertion that the plan — a relic, blah, plan prevents rapid flexible development. But we have not given up the planning system. All our "impromptu" well calculated and planned. In many ways, the flexibility of our factory is determined by the flexibility of the market. The market also lives and breathes. Some part of it become obsolete, narrow or even disappear. Others, however, are expanding rapidly developing. We take into account these trends.
The country's population is increasingly spills over into the city, metropolitan areas. Medicine of big cities, big cities transport, energy, big cities … We respond to all these phenomena. We supply for maternity unique incubators, where premature babies are placed. And in this difficult breathing cocoon they get the necessary humidity, temperature, artificial nutrition. With the help of these incubators, we saved the lives of two million children. Note that this domestic appliances, which could take place through the proper use including defense technology.
And, of course, special equipment produced for the defense of the country — is a priority.
Branded Products UOMZ well known all over the world. In the past year, we have mastered and put on the market 35 kinds of new products. We enter more and more sectors of the market, because we are so immune to the fall of one of the segments of the market, as always, save and increase production in other developing.
We are actively engaged in micro-mechanics. Our machines and centers handle the details on the micro level. In our system of production and will soon conspired to build nanotechnology center.
We have passed the crisis without losses. Where other companies killed or severely folded, we have survived and increased output. Our strategy is based on optimism, on the will to win. We are ready to adverse developments. We went out to the markets of Asia, Europe, Latin America and see how the political process, revolutions, coups reshape the market. Our country allows these terrible and not always positive phenomenon.
AP Your military products, which are fitted with aircraft, ships, armored vehicles you cook with an eye to the future. You create these products, according to your own ideas about the nature of potential conflicts, or the parameters of these products is lowered on top of the General Staff of the army research institutes, and you only embody these tactical and technical data in glass, silver, platinum in, in plastic? As you build your relationship with the customer?
SM It happens in different ways. The best option is the one that comes when a dense creative discussion between customer and supplier. During brainstorming sessions are the right decisions. But in practice it is otherwise. Today, military science manifests itself weakly. Many institutions are sunk. Some have closed altogether. And for us, the producers, the problem lies with foresight, the task of creating the necessary market samples. Therefore, we study the trends in the world of military equipment, military futurology study. Explore the experience of past wars, using a variety of sources. The validity of our solutions is checked by the market, which buys or does not buy the product with our participation.
We are actively going abroad. We participate in exhibitions, compare their products with the products of our competitors. Conflict between the Ministry of Defense and the defense industry, and between the customer and supplier — something unacceptable, it entails a loss of time and a waste of time affects the speed o
f the manufacture of a product, on its arrival rate in the armed forces, at a speed of rearmament of the Russian army. With regard to our factory, we try to tighten the requirements for our products. If the Army General Staff, or offer us create products with various tactical and technical data, we try to tend to tighten up the requirements, lay in our products are great opportunities than even those of us demand.
AP And how do you, the director, feel future conflicts, they wander through the world, the new geopolitics, which emerged after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the new potentials of the forces that have been established and are added to the world? As this military futurology forms your mind and your production work?
SM Experts say that humanity in its history, there were only three without war. Perhaps wars were not there when the Lord God created this world. As soon as he had made, the clashes. Now the world has entered a phase of intense struggle for resources. The world's resources are limited. The places where these resources are concentrated, are known. Oil and gas — this is the Middle East, parts of Africa and, of course, Russia. Uranium deposits, base metals, nickel, iron … There are fixed interests of industrialized nations, there may be no military conflicts. Arctic with its oil-bearing shelves, with its resources. There moves conflicts around the world.
Modern wars are fundamentally different from the long wars of position, as described by military hrestomatiya. Modern War and the wars of the future will be fleeting, swift. For example, a helicopter in these wars, if he was not safe from the enemy, lives no more than forty seconds it just destroyed.
In these wars, even the most insignificant, will participate space, reconnaissance equipment, machinery alerts. In these wars will play a huge role information technology. Battles will take place not just on the battlefield in a material medium, but in cyber space. In these wars will fight military ideology, military intelligence. These wars will largely take place with minimum human involvement. Drones, reconnaissance robots, soldiers, robots — it's not a fantasy, but almost a reality.
But I want to note that all of these high-theca, these technologies sixth technological order, we are not confined to the military sphere, we direct them where possible, in a peaceful sector. And the penetration of our enterprise technology into civilian products in the same infant incubators, up 64%.
Military-industrial complex, in contrast to the Soviet period, cease to be closed sverhzasekrechennym, he shares his development with the civil sector. There is a gateway through which our discoveries will penetrate or enter into peaceful civilian enterprises, even the small ones. All participants of the business community should enjoy our achievements in the opportunities created by the laws of the Russian Federation on security issues. Otherwise, once again will stop the impoverishment of the many areas of development. And the military-industrial complex will again become a closed system, calling criticism of society.
AP There is a statement very fashionable and widespread that private ownership of more efficient government. That private management of the management of state. Your plant — the perfect profitable enterprise with high efficiency. What is your relationship to the ratio of public and private in strategic industries?
SM We, unfortunately, constantly go to extremes. If collectivization — a wholly-owned and complete. If privatization — also wholly and complete. Of course, we are now — not primitive unitary enterprise. We — corporation, we reincorporated, followed all regulations within our corporation "Russian Technologies", in the framework of the plants that come from the government. The crisis of 2008, which swept across the world, in America and Russia, forced to reconsider many of the role of the state. He stressed state. With the help of the state were saved many private enterprises and banks. Those giant infusion, which were produced by the government in the private economy, many see as a disguised form of nationalization. In Germany, France, South Korea, Britain, China business is growing with a very active presence of the state. The symbiosis of private enterprise and the state is sometimes more effective than a purely public or purely private enterprise. Of course, the scope of this discussion. And in this area will reach common ground.
Defense sector — is a special sector. It is subject to the public interest, subject to state volitional influence. And if the whole chain of subcontractors, sometimes consisting of hundreds of companies, filled with private enterprises, beyond the control of the State, as we all manage it? As the private subcontractors to impose a particular product, or that an acceptable price to the state? There are many uncertainties, not checked. These discussions continue among economists and in the depths of corporations.
Defense complex carries a sophisticated metal-intensive, technology-intensive areas, there is a problem saving, preservation of sensitive information. And all this must be approached very carefully and scrupulously. Our corporation "Russian Technologies" will follow very closely the process of privatization. For, it is important that the transfer or sale of certain shares in these companies are not logged our competitors, who came in and stopped the production or harm. And this way you can lose whole important areas.
AP Your factory is located in the center of Yekaterinburg — the capital of the Urals, and harmonizes perfectly with the temples, skyscrapers, transport communications. You — the absolute part of the capital of the Urals. And what is the Urals consciousness? What is the Ural approach to business, to the world?
SM This consciousness is difficult to describe any certain terms. But this clearly: it is. There is such a thing as the spirit of the Urals, the Ural nature. Urals — labor, workman people. A people who, perhaps, the first in Russia to build heavy industry, felt the power of iron, began to create weapons, guns. We have created an industry that has a lot of powerful and innovative ways. This space, and nuclear energy, and energy, and metallurgy, mechanical engineering and powerful. This symbiosis of science, labor, intelligence with a huge history and traditions.
In the north of the Urals there is an old spiritual center — Verhoturie with his Orthodox churches and cathedrals. And in the south Urals, there is the recently opened Arch.
Ural — it Bazhov with its pagan poetry and beauty of the underground ore. Ural — it Demidov with his tough, sometimes brutal industrial policy and refined sense of beauty through which Nevyansk built marvelous inclined tower to rival the Italian Tower of Pisa.
Recently, as in the pre-presidential period ferment, when the talk that almost starts to swing the Russian state, the Urals showed their courage, their loyalty to the state idea. Hence, the Urals, the word sounded solid working people in support of the Russian state. Because the Urals — a people-creator, the people-statist.