About the disastrous fate to undermine and abandoned in a minefield turboelektrohoda "Joseph Stalin" 40 held back for eight years. The few publications generally ending message: the ships of the Baltic Fleet to leave the ship located on it — more than 2,500 people! — Intercessors Hanko.
Stories of participants
In late November 1941, the steel walls of the Leningrad port moored ship "Vahur" under the command of Captain Sergeyev. His deck and holds were filled with soldiers, who arrived with the Hanko Peninsula, where our military base. The enemy is sighted to our sites on this piece of the Baltic lands, and held all the more difficult to transport hidden parts.
Second-rank military technician Mike I. Voytashevsky:
— At Hanko I arrived together with his friends, graduates of public universities earlier, former cadets: Mikhailov, Martiyanom, Marchenko, Molchanov. We have built an airfield, underground shelters for people and airplanes.
The fact that we had to give Hanko, did not know until the last day or evacuation. Our battalion of the regiment went into the composite including the closing. No noise was killed or led into disrepair all the equipment base. Locomotives and wagons thrown into the water. Took only weapon, ammunition and food. December 1, 1941 at the dawn began to be loaded on a passenger turboelektrohod "Stalin", who was standing by the wall. Other ships were at anchor. The enemy, apparently, found a landing and began shelling the port. We received the order — to hide on the shore. Loads in addition to the following day, when the "Stalin" with the number of military vehicles, "BT-501" was on the raid. We, the officers warned: "In the event of attacks or bombings remain in place. The ship is overloaded, and the move is dangerous. "
The caravan was broken into the night of 2 December 3. On the liner, not counting the team, according to the base commander S.I.Kabanova Hanko, Hanko was 5589. The commander of the ship was Captain 1st Rank Evdokimov, Commissioner — Captain 2nd Rank Kaganovich, the captain — Nikolay S. Stepanov. My platoon took the cabin, designed for 3 people.
Middle of the night there was a violent explosion. Electronic light faded. The soldiers jumped up and rushed to the door, but I blocked the door and ordered everyone to stay in place.
After some time the light turned on, but soon there was a second explosion stronger than the first one. Again, the light faded. In the darkness, under the pressure of the fighters I found myself on the deck. There was total confusion. People rushing on the ship, not knowing what happened. The ship shuddered from a third explosion. Moaning and screaming wounded. Mad people filled the lifeboats, jumped overboard. Tali one boat got stuck. Boat stands up, and people spilled out of it in the water. Shooting began. Some shot themselves. It was hard to understand what is happening and what to do. One fellow in a leather jacket in his hands two lifebuoys. I immediately with someone grabbed the circle, but failed to seize it.
By "I. Stalin" began to approach the warships, which transferred the wounded. To the nose the ship approached the destroyer "Glorious", tried to take us in tow, but the ship ran into a mine again. The explosion of great strength broke the ship's bow, and he began to sink faster. I was wounded and fell to the deck.
Feed was cut off earlier. Survived only mid-ship, stabbed dead, but alive and wounded. On warships for 3 hours, in the dark frosty weather the storm, they took 1,740 people, most of the wounded. Minesweepers, the destroyer, and the boat went crowded, people were very tightly. In the holds of the vessel was creepy look. In the middle of the broken shells boxes, interspersed with bags of flour, swam the mutilated corpses of soldiers and commanders.
The capture of Russian soldiers who survived the disaster liner "Joseph Stalin". Photo made with the German ship.
Captain 1st Rank L.E.Rodichev:
— 5th detachment under the command of Vice Admiral V.P.Drozda had to finish the evacuation of our troops from Hanko before the Bay will be ice.
… December 2 at 21.25 we weighed anchor. Forward to build the ledge were three minesweepers. Behind them, forming a second row, followed by another two minesweepers, behind which was the flagship — the destroyer "Resistant". Should move turboelektrohod "Stalin," the destroyer "Glorious", without trawl trawler boat "iamb." The detachment was accompanied by seven boats marine hunters and four torpedo boats.
I was on the bridge of the destroyer "Glorious." Face burned northeast frosty wind. Excitement 5-6. Astern, Hanko, burned the city and port.
December 3 at 00.03, at a signal from the flagship of the "rack", according to the approved route, changed course from 90 to 45 degrees. Within 5 minutes after the turn at 3-sweeper mine explosions were killed trawls. Began their hasty substitution.
… At 01.14 with a change of course "Stalin" swept out of the band, there was a mine explosion at the left side turboelektrohoda. The first is the explosion knocked out the automatic control rudders. The vessel began to move along the curve, and left the band swept through inertia entered the minefield. After two minutes the second bomb exploded on the right side of the liner. Dodging floating mines and pushing their poles, the destroyer "Glorious" approached the starboard side, "Stalin" at a distance of 20-30 meters.
…01.16. A mine explosion under the stern turboelektrohoda drifting in the wind. With destroyer ship roared on, "anchor!"
…01.25. From the commander of a destroyer "Resistant" received a radio message: "The commander of the" glorious "take turboelektrohod in tow."
… 01.26. 4th mine explosion nose liner. With the "Stalin" passed "to come off and the anchor windlass, anchor can not!" Destroyer "Glorious", starting from the poles floating mines, lay at anchor. Turboelektrohod continued to drift through a minefield in the south-east.
… 01.48. To the aid of the destroyer "Resistant" arrived basic minesweeper. Mine explosion it right otter (Paravan — submersible to protect the ship from the anchor pin min. Here and further annotated. Creator.) Incapacitated.
… 02.44. The destroyer "Glorious" weighed anchor and began to move backwards to sdreyfovavshemu 1.5 miles liner to feed towline. Having found the stern of a floating mine, "Glorious" passed the turn ahead. Mina abandoned the movement of water from the screws.
… 03.25. Finnish artillery battery Makiluoto opened fire on our ships. On turboelektrohod with the "Glorious" started serving the tow rope. At this point, one of the shells hit the enemy in the fore hold the liner. In the hold were shells and bags of flour, in which the men were sitting. Explosion and languid shell detonated ammunition was terrible. A pillar of flame from the burning of flour rose above "Joseph Stalin". Nose turboelektrohoda even harder down into the water. The ability to tow ship was no more.
After learning about the incident on the ra
dio, the vice-admiral Drozd ordered all ships and boats to shoot fighters. Trawlers began taking people with "Stalin." The strong excitement. To the aid of the flagship destroyer "Resistant" came two minesweepers.
With the coming of the day or you can wait for the air raid of the enemy, and our unit was ordered: Hogland to follow! At the rear, a mine field, was wounded turboelektrohod.
Construction battalion chief Anatoly S. Mikhailov:
— After the explosions detonated mines and shells on the crowded trawlers were coming up in the hustle jump those who could force the way to the board. People are broke and fell between the side of the ship into the water. Alarmists were shot at close range, and minesweepers were obliged to retreat.
The order on the ship, in these desperate criteria, hardly Bridging the commandant of transport "Stalin" Lieutenant Commander Galaktionov (After the captivity Galaktionov gone, pi rumored to have been arrested.), Who commanded the 50 sailors armed with machine guns.
As the A.S.Mihaylov and it confirms the headquarters of CBF, with the liner could be removed only 1,740 people. But then from Hanko to turboelektrohod, according to various sources, loaded about 6,000 people. Not counting the dead, in the holds of the wounded left more than 2,500 healthy and defenders of Hanko. Where have the others?
About 50 merchant mariners on the orders of Captain liner Stepanova and with the permission of the Vice-Admiral Drozd to 05.00 am prepared lifeboat.
The captain gave Stepanov own Browning podshkiperu D.Esinu.
— Tell the authorities. I can not throw fighters. I will be with them until the end. Senior on the boat appoint a second assistant Primak. I gave him all the documents.
Turbinist machine instruction "Stalin" Peter Kravchuk Coast:
— Out of the car, where I was on the upper deck had not come out. All aisles packed with people. I managed to climb on the ladder brackets, laid inside the chimney, opened the door and jumped on the radio room. Squeezed to the side, I saw standing next captain of the ship and the captain Evdokimov Stepanov. Captain Stepanov himself hunted tackles, took his first boat. According to an emergency alarm I was painted on the front of the boat and said that the captain. Stepanov said nothing. Boat, rocking already hung across the bottom, and I did not hesitate to jump into it. Behind heard clicks, shots, someone fell into the water. The boat moved away from the board.
Later we picked up and taken to Kronstadt ships CBF.
Warships have moved away from "Stalin." On the broken ship through the efforts of the mechanics as earlier worked tirelessly pump, pumping water out of the broken sections. At dawn, the enemy again opened fire liner, but quickly ended up consuming.
At the time of the shooting someone at the top of the superstructure threw white sheets, but his shot here.
Not waiting for assistance, the commander of the liner, Captain 1st rank Evdokimov and Captain Stepanov gathered in the mess of all unit commanders who were on the ship — about 20 people.
The commander of an artillery battery Prokofievich Nikolai Titov:
— At the meeting, in addition to other commanders, and was commander of the ship captain, Lieutenant-Galaktionov.
We discussed two questions:
1. Open Kingston in 2500 and, together with the surviving soldiers to go to the bottom.
2. All abandon ship and swim to get to the shore, and it is 10.8 km.
Taking into account that in the icy water not only injured, but even healthy not survive more than 15-20 minutes, the second option was considered equivalent to the first.
I, like most young, inexperienced in life, patriotic educated in school, took the floor:
— Balts do not give up — I said.
— More specifically, — said Evdokimov.
— Open to all Kingston and go to the bottom, — I said.
There was a silence, then took the floor Command Evdokimov.
— In fact, what happened to us, no one povinet. We are not alone, we have people on the ship, and you can not decide for them.
You — passengers, and I as the commander of one will answer for marine laws to the government for your life. What does the fellow Titov — not the best method. I think, you need to get down to business. Killed on the deck of the Sea betray custom sea. To assist the wounded, to heat, hot water. All that is floating, tie into rafts. Maybe someone will get to the guerrillas NIGHT MODE.
Stepanov Evdokimovym agreed.
— … Soon drifting ship-fitting on a shallow spot. The ship has lost even more stability. Under the blows of the waves on the rocks, it was creeping, pulling on one and then on the other side. So as not to tip over, and without annoying we moved from side to side and dragged with a languid boxes of ammunition.
By morning, all exhausted. Pervaded the stabbing frosty wind. Storm intensified. Suddenly crawled from the shallows ship lurched unsafe. The remaining boxes flew overboard. Aligning the slope, those who could not move, moved to the opposite side, but the slope is not diminished. So they decided to throw overboard the heavy spare anchor. For the anchor dragged and were taken as best they could. Only at dawn could push him into the water. Or the ship itself descended from a bank, or an anchor has promoted, the slope decreased.
As before moaning wounded. Most of the expected believed had hoped, "little brother will not give up, help out."
On Gogland and the truth is not forgotten any of the ship or its passengers, but most likely because of the option indicated in Article V.N.Smirnova "Torpedo for" Stalin. " After all, the majestic ship was named chief. If the boat with people die, no one from the power elite do not blame sailors, but if the Germans take over the liner and take captive 2,500 soldiers, failure is inevitable. The horror of punishment may have been the main judge. The question is simple: what is more important — the inscription on behalf of the leader board or a life of their own 2,500 soldiers and officers? Outweighed — inscription.
Captain 1st rank in retirement, Hero Russian Union of Abram G. Sverdlov:
— In 1941, with the rank of lieutenant commander I was a huge wooden torpedo boat D-3, numbered 12 and 22. After acceptance of the factory still 2-boats-32-th and 42-th — I was appointed commander of the 1st Detachment of the 2nd battalion brigade of torpedo boats.
Evacuation of Hanko base ended December 2, 1941. The base commander, Major-General and his staff S.I.Kabanov on boats 12 th, 22 th and 42 th last to leave.
The gale of 7 points and snow squalls hampered the movement of boats to Hogland. When the district passed Porkkala Uud, followed by mines in the location of the convoy.
At dawn on December 5, the commander of the district aqua Hogland (OVRa) Captain 1st Rank Ivan Svyatov ordered us with 2 boats bolshennymi D-3 storm and drown drifting in Tallinn, at the island of Ae-IEG, turboelektrohod "Stalin" . To accompany the selected one aircraft I-16. Instructed to make an order to the 12th and 22th boats. 22-m boat commanded by Lieutenant James Belyaev.
The operation was very insecure. Turboelektrohod drifted nearby enemy artillery batteries. The Germans in the daytime would not have allowed under his nose hosting Russian torpedo boats. But orders are orders and must be completed. Storm, the wave flooded the boat, snow blinded. I had to slow down. Abeam the lighthouse Rodsher received a telegram: "Come back!" Motives by which the saint gave the order, and later canceled, he explained.
Thus, the four torpedoes, even while on the boat, headed for the goal — turboelektrohodu "Stalin", filled with the expected help his men, sailors and officers.
Recall the four torpedoes aimed Russian submarine commander Alexander Marinesco a huge enemy ship "Wilhelm Gustlo
ff". Three of them hit the target and the ship sank with more than 7 thousand people. It was the enemy, and at the moment — their own, Russian, trapped in failing, the heroes of Hanko.
Private, gunner Anatoly Chipkus:
— Upon returning teams boats on the island of Hogland in the garrison quickly spread the rumor about the order to our torpedo boats to storm the ship and drown "Stalin." Background of this order explained in different ways. One read: because of the name of the vessel. Others have argued: that the Germans have not got the shells and flour. Part indignant, but there were those who said: we do not care. How many people were left on the ship, no one knew. The cause of most of the non-fulfillment of tasks explained the breakdown of the motor on one of the boats, and the proximity of the storm drifting turboelektrohoda artillery batteries to the Germans. Some read as if katerniki not torpedoed ship because they do not want to sink their own.
— After the meeting of commanders to "Stalin" people tried to leave the ship even in what ways. From lying on the deck of the raft made of logs fighters. "The Raft need to cross the ships that will come after us," — explained fighters. Ready raft they lowered the water, and later, giving the ropes are gone from the vessel. The fate of the people on the raft, and it has remained unknown. The second group to form their bayonets and tied belts small raft. On it, together with my friend A.S.Mihaylovym started jumping fighters.
— The raft we just let down — the water was almost at the level of the upper deck. On the raft jumped 10's people. Unstable building swayed, and many have fallen into the water. When we sailed on the ship, the raft were 11 people. During the eight-hour drift to the Estonian coast raft flips a couple of times. Who had the power, by means of his comrades were chosen from the icy water. 6-to-coast got stiffened in wet clothes, huddled in a tight clump of people. Unknown, armed with machine guns, picked us up, brought into a warm room, warmed the boiling water and gave the Germans.
— December 5, at about 10 am with the "Stalin" to see the ships. Whose? Were German minesweepers and two schooners. Many tore the papers and even money. The water around the ship turned white from the market.
Middle German minesweeper asked: can ship without the help of others to move? No one answered. We could not move. The Germans began to moor "I. Stalin". With machine guns at the ready, they moved to the liner. Through an interpreter, gave command to hand over private gun. Who fail will be shot. At first trawler captain took 1st rank Evdokimov, the ship's captain Stepanova, commanders and political workers, electrical Onuchina and his wife Anna barmaid Calvano.
I and my friends, and military technician Martiyan Molchanov, wore uniforms and sailors were on the second trawler as ordinary. Took us to Tallinn, seized knives, razors, belts and herded into the basement of the structure in the harbor, where were my other comrades and junior political officer Oniskevich. At the finals of the same day or our group — about 300 people — under heavy guard sent by rail to the Estonian town of Viljandi.
In Viljandi was still dark, when we were driven to a prison camp, located in the center of town. Opened the first gate of the Stitching wire, letting us and guard closed. Ahead were the next closed gate, and we went into camp. Rapidly moving in a circle strange shadows fell in the snow and getting up again. The shadows were emaciated prisoners of war.
From that day or the beginning of continuous nightmare and durable inhuman tortures in the dungeons of the fascist …
In the camp of an outbreak of typhus. Patients with the highest temperature of the "treated sanitation." Driven under the cold shower, then survived hundreds of rare "lucky." My friend Martiyan died immediately after the shower, her head resting on my weak hands.
Subsequent camp, where we were transferred, was a real hell. Life has lost all value. The police chief and his assistant Chaly Zaitsev at least what reason, and without cause, coupled with its own team beat the exhausted men, set against dogs. The prisoners lived in dugouts, who built themselves. They were fed gruel of putrid unwashed potatoes without salt.
Once a day, hundreds of prisoners died. He died and my friend Sergei Molchanov. For the year of 12,000 prisoners of war remained the least in 2000. (Ruthless appeal to the Russian prisoners of war, compared with prisoners from other countries not joining the Germans were motivated by the Soviet Union to the 1929 Geneva Convention on prisoners of war proclamation (Germany signed the convention in 1934). USSR had not signed the convention because of the negative things Russian government (Stalin, Molotov Kalinin) the ability to capture the most Russian soldiers and officers. Besides, the government considered: if there is a war, it will be conducted in the area of the enemy and capture criterion Russian fighter will not. But by the end of 1941, the Germans captured 3 8 million of our soldiers and officers.)
In April 1944, the latest our camp in the west of Germany, South American troops approached. A group of 13 prisoners decided to escape. We crept up to the fence of the camp, made a hole in the wire cutters Stitching wire and headed for the coming military barracks that have left the retreating Germans. They found the food pantry and had a feast. A little muddled from the barracks, loaded with biscuits and marmalade, as bullets whistled around. We hid in the bushes. I felt the shock and pain in the left arm. From loss of blood after a while lost consciousness. As it turned out, we were fired on the SS men returning from town. The officer gave the order to shoot all the fugitives.
Our doctor, who spoke in German, has justified the officer that in Germany there is no law on the execution of the wounded. By His reasons are joined by a German soldier — a student of medical faculty of the Berlin Institute. The officer agreed and ordered the 2-move the wounded to the barracks, and eleven fugitives to shoot …
August 25, 1945 I was discharged in repatriated prisoners of war camp, where inapplicable admitted to military service, my hand had healed properly and hung like a log.
The subsequent test I was in the Pskov region, the station Opuhliki. In this camp more aggressively inspected the former prisoners of war.
In October 1945, I, as a disabled person, was sent to Kiev, where I was drafted into the Navy. Recruitment office did not take me to the record because I did not work, and the work is not perceived because of the mark: "There was a prisoner …"
From the living companions, whom I knew from the "Stalin" was only one Mikhailov. He passed away in 1989.
Petty Officer 1st Class Service surveillance and communications (SNIS) Nicholas T. Donchenko:
— At the time I was an orderly at Hanko Defense Commander Major General S.I.Kabanova. The general was to go on turboelektrohode "Stalin." For it was prepared cabin, but he went with the staff at the torpedo boats. Me and the last minute before going with a suitcase general, where there were papers and printing staff, a torpedo boat was taken to the ship. I remember when the first explosion anchor bleed off. Chains and ropes, twisting, hitched and threw people into the water, breaking out of the hands and feet. Explosions tore a fireproof safe, and in the place where I was, facilities strewn deck. Storm. It was dark and cloudy. No one knew where we were carrying. Once destroyed the senior radio operator, transmit distress signals on the orders Stepanova all the equipment in the radio room we killed.
At dawn on the third day seemed to drift away Paldiski lighthouse. Groans of the woun
ded under the guns began to prepare for the last battle. Battery of artillery bombarded the enemy ship, but soon fell silent. Captain Stepanov to the latest Minutka commanded the ship. When were the German ships, he ordered me to sink a suitcase with documents headquarters. I shot revolver General lid of the suitcase and threw it together with the documents, seals and a revolver in the water.
After the Germans took the commanders, they are transported in the merchant harbor of Tallinn sergeants and privates. 50 sailors, among whom I was one, were taken separately.
In the morning, all who could move, built to send to the station. We were surrounded by weight, a fair-haired young man, turned and threw a stone with the power system in Russian. The stone hit in the head bandaged bandages young Red Army Sergey Surikov of the first company of the second battalion. Surikov was a believer and secretly prayed at night. Above the quiet nesusvetno a good fighter, a tacit encouragement of the authorities, laughing. Only the fighter Stepan Izyumov supporting at the moment weakened Surikov, he knew that his father and his older brother, "the faithful and alien elements" were shot in Stalin's camps … With his left hand clutching the latest wound, from which blood was leaking, Surikov started to be baptized right and narrow at breaking falsetto voice suddenly loudly sang prayers verse from Scripture. Weight subsided. Well, in the structure of the prisoners who have known suffering and humiliation, no one laughed.
The fate of a Surikov had its own way. He survived the Nazi captivity and ended up in Stalin's camps.
I went through the Nazi death camps in Estonia, Poland, Prussia. During unloading of coal at one of the steamers of someone hungry prisoners stole food from the crew. The SS men lined up and shot all worked every tenth. I was ninth and stayed alive.
I tried to escape from the camp in Poland. Catch, ramrods thrashed to death. When I think of the past, not only shaking hands, and the whole body …
First Brigade Torpedo torpedo boats Vladimir Fedorovich Ivanov:
— By the Estonian coast winged ship quite close. Just after the war, during a meeting with Hanko, I learned that this drift was rescued from our ship torpedo. Turboelektrohod was near the shore in the sights of the enemy's batteries.
Germans from Estonia have flown to Finland. Finns separated from ordinary commanders. Sent to the recovery of the devastated Hanko. We tried to get over to the peasants in the countryside, where it was easier to run. To the peasants fled together with Victor Arkhipov. In my village, for neprilezhnoe attitude to work and campaigning, the Finns wanted to beat. Victor grabbed a pitchfork and drove farmers. After clashes in the village came a Finnish officer and threatened with execution.
Filippova, Maslova, Makarova and I was separated from the other prisoners in the camp area, where we stayed right up to the conclusion of peace with Finland.
Municipal political checks I was in the camp of the NKVD number 283 Bobrin City metropolitan area. After that I tried as an amateur artist to go to art school, but I was not accepted because of captivity.
After the war, it became clear that the Germans with "Stalin" gave the Finns about 400 Russian prisoners of war for the restoration of Hanko. The Finns were of international laws on humane appeal of prisoners of war and fed them acceptable. After the release of the Finnish war, all prisoners of war returned home.
Finns have helped life and Hero Russian Union commander of the submarine Lisin. With the explosion of the boat he was thrown overboard. The Germans sought to give Lisin Gestapo, but the Finns did not obey.
And what happened to the captain of the vessel Nikolai Sergeyevich Stepanov?
Chairman of the Board of Veterans Baltic Shipping Company Vladimir Smirnov:
— A bold, intelligent, enjoys a great reputation in the Baltic Shipping Company, he was in the military. Alex Onuchin electrician and his wife Anna Calvano know what they Stepanov December 1941 sawing wood at the port and was the pilot. It is through Onuchina Calvano and transmit data on the transport of troops and supplies Germans. Not feeling any guilt, he waited for the arrival of Russian troops.
With the entry of our troops in Tallinn Capt. Nicholas S. Stepanov gone.
According to the views of N.P.Titova, he was shot at once, "faithful servant" of the people.
The fate of the commander of the ship of Captain 1st Rank Evdokimov there were a lot of rumors, but nothing definite could not find. According to the Voytashevskogo and other prisoners of war, he was in a Nazi concentration camp, and after also missing.
Onuchin and his wife Anna were living Calvano and long worked in Tallinn. As of 1990, Anna died Calvano and Onuchin seriously ill and lost his memory.
The scion of Captain Oleg Stepanov Stepanov:
— The last time I beheld my father November 16, 1941. My father was going on a voyage, and on the day I defended a diploma in mechanical engineering from the Institute of Transportation Engineers aqua. Shortly before his father took a picture, the picture him in '53. November 1941 was disastrous. Leningrad during the blockade, the Gulf is littered with mines. Cape dad had a premonition: seeing each other for the last time.
What did become of the liner by "Stalin", which long years, broken down, waterlogged, was sitting on the rocks near the port of Paldiski?
Captain 1st rank in retirement Eugene V. Osetsky:
— The last time I beheld turboelektrohod, more precisely, his remains in 1953. At the time, I was in command of the fleet auxiliary vessels the port of Tallinn. Rusted body tried to cut into the metal, but found the shells, arranged in layers, with bags of flour. Decomposed bodies were lying on top of the defenders of Hanko. The soldiers removed the dead, cleared the ship from the shells and cut the metal casing. Where are they buried the dead — I do not know.
In an attempt to torpedo the liner "Stalin" with the soldiers, sailors and officers are still many implicit …