April 22, 2010 in St. Petersburg, members of the State Commission finally signed the act of acceptance of JSC "Admiralty Shipyards" head diesel-electric submarine (SSK of) Project 677 "Lada" "Saint Petersburg". This action and the customer — the Navy of the Russian Federation, and the artist — JSC "Admiralty Shipyards" waited as long as 12 years and 4 months. Specifically much time has passed since the bookmark submarine in December 1997.
Diesel-electric submarines of Project 677 "Lada" was developed at the Central Design Bureau for Marine Engineering (CDB ME "Rubin") under the control of General Designer Yuri Kormilitsin. According to officials, this ship belongs to the fourth generation of submarines. But is it in fact?
Can be proud of
Of course, brand new submarine has a number of fundamentally differences from their own predecessors. First we need to note a high degree of automation of centralized control of all ship systems and instrument from operator panels, which are located primarily Command pt.
The power of raketotorpednogo complex. This was done by the famous design offices, scientific and production associations and research universities, including the CDB ME "Rubin", NGO "Aurora", Central Research Institute "Electropribor" EDO "Innovator" and the NGO "Agate". As a result of their joint work has appeared antiship CLUB-C. This is a built-missile system, which is a unique development, almost unparalleled in the world.
Russian scientists, designers, builders actually met a breakthrough in the techno-economic characteristics and technology of creation of the "Lada". In the process of development activities were offered 10's new solutions. All weapons, boat systems and materials — this is the last word of science and technology.
On a submarine more than 170 devices and systems, which until now were not issued in. Boat has the latest navigation system, which weight only 50 kg. Previously weighed as much a gyrocompass. For the first time in the design of technologies used previously used exclusively in the aerospace industry.
For example, a sonar system built on a new base and a new mathematical software. In the bow is a highly sensitive antenna shumopelengatornaya. Set a fundamentally new universal functional periscope. Up-and-telescopic mast devices are made. They are all, except the commander, does not fall into the strong body. Implemented a brand new system of receiving radio information from the shore underwater.
The Achilles heel of all our boats except diesel submarines of Project 636 ("Kilo" according to the Western ordering) and the nuclear submarine of project 971, was listed as the highest underwater noise. In over 18 years — in the years 1968-1986 the solution of this problem dealt with four (!) Decisions of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers. Every 6 years, was given the task to reduce the noise level at 2-3. Three prescriptions top political and municipal government of the country failed. But the requirements of the fourth document, which is called, hung in the air, as the work on the topic has been interrupted due to lack of funding. Coupled with the need to highlight the fact that nuclear attack submarines Project 971A, for example, was able to reduce the level of underwater noise by 30 decibels, in other words in sound pressure level — 30 times, and the level of radiated sound power — a thousand times!
Noise "St. Petersburg" to get closer to the background values of the sea. And by stealth — outshine all submarines built before us, including the Project 877 diesel-powered boats, which are called in the West "black hole" — so low noise they create when they go under the water.
How this will be achieved? The answer to this question is the creator of these lines received in the municipal research center "Central Research Institute of the Krylov» — Krylov Shipbuilding Research Institute (KSRI). For boats fourth generation made special sound-proofing — right down to low frequencies — rubber coating width of only 40 mm. They are half as thick as that used in our earlier. The new coating is composed of 7-8 layers of varying perforation profile rubber. The idea common: the more air pockets, so it is a perfect absorbs noise of different frequencies and at different depths. This was told the head of the department of industrial and marine acoustics Institute, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Dr. Ernst Mishinsky.
So the statement made first deputy general director of the state corporation "Russian Technologies" Alexey Aleshin that "Harmony" — is more than a catchy ambitious project in which employed more than 120 Innovative technologies, based on its own right. But only in part, given that the design of "Lada" began at the Central Design Bureau for Marine Engineering "Rubin" in 1989. The fact that 20 years ago, maybe it was the innovations, it is now — the past century. Especially since not all the ideas of designers managed to bring to the metal.
And if you compare?
With all that our "Harmony" has broken many world records, namely the construction of the term — for the unparalleled submarine displacement of 1765 tons.
For comparison: the head in a series of diesel-electric submarine U-31 Project 212A laid on the Kiel shipyard Howaldtswerke Deutsche Werft AG (HDW) a year after our (in 1998), and after 6 years — 29 July 2004 passed the Naval German forces. Above water (normal) displacement of the diesel-electric submarines almost like a Russian — 1700 tons.
While the "Admiralty Shipyards" build one "Saint-Petersburg", bundesmarine received from Howaldtswerke Deutsche Werft AG four submarines: U-31, U-32, U-33 and U-34.
One can not fail to direct more attention to a number of performance characteristics of Russian and German submarines. Our test depth — 300 m, at the German — 400. Our crew consists of 35 people in Germany — 27, in other words, imperfect technology, we compensated for the increase in the number of people on board the submarine for 8 people.
By arming "Saint-Petersburg", if they believe the official sources, too, unfortunately, inferior Kiel submarines. In Russian diesel-electric submarines — 6 torpedo tubes, the Germanic — at eight.
As the propulsion system used on the German submarine fuel cells, called colloquially "hydrogen batteries." It is independent of the air propulsion system from Siemens. The energy released from the eleven hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell capacity of 120 kW each and a proton-exchange membrane is transmitted to the main engine. "Hydrogen batteries" have allowed increment endurance submarines in a couple of times in comparison with classical BATTERY diesel-electric submarines.
And what did WE?
Another 30 years ago CDB "Lapis", NGO "Quantum" and "Cryogenmash" started creating submarine propulsion systems with chemical generators (ECG). C-273 submarine of Project 613 was reconstructed under the project 613E "Qatran." If ordinary submarine on a two-node speed without recharging the batteries can stay under water for at least 4 days, when using ECG period increased up to a month.
Second line Russian designers — the creation of
engines operating in a closed cycle. Project 615 with a single engine, embodied in the metal still in the middle of the last century, was unique in the world.
Since 1978, the leading developer of propulsion systems with ECG was Special Boiler Design Bureau. It appealed to the experience of the Ural Chemical Plant and NGOs "Energy" to create gallakticheskih for ECG machines. Thus was the engine for submarines "Crystal-20", in which hydrogen and oxygen are used. The latter was in a bound form — in the intermetallic compound.
It was assumed that the anaerobic power plant on the basis of ECG receive a "Lada". But Underwater boat "St. Petersburg" is not. And it would be a shame as it sounds, it means the subsequent: Our homeland for the first time failed to make submarine last generation.
Wait and see
This can lead to negative consequences for the Russian Navy, and for military-technical cooperation with other countries.
How sad it is stated, but the trouble with the establishment of boats fourth generation of very dethrone Russian position on the world market submarine. Our constant buyers — China and India in the state without the help of others to build third-generation submarines. Buy our "Lada" intended to Venezuela. But instead of "Lada" we offered a very different submarine Project 636 third-generation Caracas for what we politely thanked him, but did not give money.
Meanwhile, as we can not cope with the diesel-electric submarines fourth generation, Sweden, Japan and other countries have already started to work on the creation of boats fifth generation.
In general, more important for us to meet the demand for diesel submarines of the Russian submarine fleet. They were a matter of unity. In the Barents Sea almost four diesel-electric submarines will be able to immediately go to sea in the Baltic Sea — two on the Black Sea — one in the Far East — 5.
Everything becomes clear in the comparison. In 2003, when there were not formed submarine force, as part of the fleet was 21 diesel-electric submarine, including 19 diesel-electric submarines of Project 877, and two — Project 641B. As part of their permanent readiness forces were only nine submarines. The vast majority of them had different restrictions in operation. Over the past seven years, the new boats are not built, and many had to bring in an old dump.
At the beginning of the century the entire submarine fleet of the Russian Federation amounted to 15 per cent of the fighting strength of the submarine forces of the Russian Navy. In the first decade of this figure dropped even more. Because at the moment we do not need to arm India and China, and its fleet. And such were the plans of the government.
Speaking at the ceremony of laying submarine of project 667 "Kronstadt" in 2006, the Director General of State Unitary Enterprise "Admiralty Shipyards" Vladimir Alexandrov said: "The Navy insists on a speedy construction of 2-6 submarine crews." Alexandrov explained that these submarines are usually built within 28-32 months — depending on the level of funding. It took more months and years, but new boats in the fleets have not appeared.
By the way, the very figure — 12 diesel-electric submarines — is questionable. Since the introduction of the calculations submarines in combat situations show us a different composition of the forces and means. From our experience with the operation of nuclear missile submarines strategic focus is clear that to ensure their combat strength for each ship to have three multi-purpose nuclear submarines. And to cover them in turn is useful for three diesel-electric submarines. In the life of this standard did not have long maintained. And what will happen next?
Our Navy until 2015 was due to receive 40 diesel-electric submarines fourth generation. But after so long and not very successful "epic" with the creation of "St. Petersburg" This program may be revised.
It is planned to build a series of eight submarines of Project 677. At the moment, the stocks in various stages of readiness are two subs — "Kronstadt" and "Sevastopol". Now that the industrial cooperation created and perfected the construction of the development, we can expect that the fleet will receive a year of at least two combat "unity." But as they say, wait and see …