In the Soviet Union in 1936, has had all of the major developments in the settings of rocket artillery
Neither kind of gun did not take advantage of the Red Army during the war, that of the whole people love and glory as the famous "Katyusha" — severe and massive artillery and mortar facility support of ground troops.
In the famous "Katyusha" is a military title. With him it was a long and torturing its own path of development — from concept to engineering reference standard, which stood before the members of the State Commission of the People's Commissariat of Defense of the USSR in one of the suburban artillery ranges. This was called strictly secret benchmark BM-8-48. Translated into civilian language adopted it stands as a fighting machine rocket launchers, designed for missile M-8, caliber 82 mm. Projectile weight was — 8 kg. Range — 5,500 meters.
Fighting vehicle was out of the ordinary truck without a body to fix a PU (launcher or frame). But the "Katyusha" popular rumor is not dubbed this standard, adopted in 1940. This first model of the coming severe gun was in the role of Cinderella, which has not made it on his own royal ball. Neither Stalin nor the new People's Commissar of Defense, a staunch horseman Tymoshenko, who succeeded sham Marshal Voroshilov and Stalin's favorite, nor the new Chief of the General Staff — Zhukov, nor Marshal Kulik, the chief of the Head of the Red Army Ordnance Department, did not take seriously the creation of units Rocket Artillery.
Frightened by military victories of Hitler in Europe and mobility Wehrmacht, the leaders of the country all the major resources and attention given the strengthening of armor, mechanized creation of separate buildings, the development of new advanced aircraft systems and, of course, the upcoming improving the cavalry, which had already become outdated morally.
Coming victorious Wehrmacht immediately overwhelms the Russian army and seized a huge part of the Soviet Union changed the outlook of the Supreme Commander of Stalin and virtually all of T-bills (Municipal Committee of Defense). It turned out that in the Army in Germany is multi-barreled rocket launchers used on wheeled and tracked.
By the way, in 1937, the Wehrmacht had not yet armed with such a system, as in the Soviet Union at the end of 1936 there were all of the major developments in the settings of rocket artillery. And, most importantly, there was a patent on jet shell, developed and implemented by the genius of Russian scientific thought a military engineer of the first rank Zhoroj Erihovichem Langemak (arrested in 1938). This shell for his fighting qualities and degree of destruction was not unique. It is a question not only about the Rockets for the first benchmark BM 8-48, and the next, more massive on its own entrails, shells.
The first fellow Russian military-technical thought it was not possible to get a ticket to the front and take part in the defeat of the enemy. But the second benchmark — BM-13, had an impressive benefit. Specifically, he served as the layout for the name of "Katyusha". Now compare the ability of this standard, designed for missile M-13. Calibre — 132 mm. Weight — 42 kg 5. Range — 8,470 meters. This new type of Russian guns came out day or two of birth.
First, official, came just after the projectile missile tests in 1937. Then, follow the dark pages of repression KGB — ezhovtsev against Russian scientists and developers, freezing works.
The second days of birth of the harsh gun was July 14, 1941. Specifically, in this day of BM-13 received its baptism of Orsha, where the Metropolitan railway node accumulated mass of the Wehrmacht trains with ammunition, equipment and manpower.
It was a time of utter disaster for the Red Army. The troops were retreating everywhere. Airy place quite controlled Hitler's air force. I even Nazis in ideas does not appear that in this sector, where the Wehrmacht kept absolutely in the hands of their own initiative, you will be at least one Russian plane or follow Russian infantry attack, supported by artillery. But what proved unworkable ordinary units of the Russian troops, tanks and artillery also proved to probable for a single in the USSR experimental battery BM-13 under the command of Captain Flerov.
5 BM-13 struck a volley shot, simultaneously turning the station Orsha, and all that is in it was in the zone of continuous fire.
The fact of the introduction of the Red Army completely new type of weapon at once became famous chief of the General Staff Intelligence Department of the Army Wehrmacht Colonel Gehlen, who was very well informed about all the military-technical innovations in the USSR.
Then he will head the Federal Intelligence Service of Germany, and his memories were not the least blockbuster than the memories of Marshal Zhukov.
The history of the first installations of rocket artillery, remaining forever in the history of the Second World War, very tragic. Having spent the entire ammunition, battery, which has become a hunt for aviation Wehrmacht and mobile units "Waffen — SS", was detonated. In the fighting died Captain Flerov and virtually all members of the raid is truly immortal. But particularly after which Treasury bill rate and signed by Stalin's decree was made operational on the development of rocket artillery units, which was promoted in advance guards. And they began to be referred to in the documents of the General Staff of the USSR, operational reports and orders of T-bills, as the Guards mortar units are included in the reserve artillery of T-bills.
Total creation of BM-13 was performed on the capital plant "Compressor" under the academic Barmina, which all the materials used and the rich, the accumulation over the years of research experience, the creators of these rocket artillery units. We are talking about the former leadership of the Rocket Research Institute (RNII), which included Kleimenov, head of the institute, Langemak, chief engineer of the Queens, head of cruise missiles, leading engineers and Petropalovsky Artemyev.
In a bloody nightmare storms in 1938 destroyed the mass of the military, and were brutally exterminated by the best military and scientific and technical personnel. Case survived the horror of Stalin's dictatorship only Sergey Queens. Later, he became the principal designer of Russian missile and space systems, and the main rival of another genius — the notorious Werner von Braun, who, unlike the Queen and other Russian talents, guarded as the apple of an eye, and the Hitler regime, and the U.S. government.
By 1943, the Guard of rocket artillery mortar replenished the latest, more powerful, the BM-31, designed for missile M-31 caliber 300 mm. Projectile weight was 9410.5 kg.
Russian military history "patriotic" fails to mention that the German rocket launchers, also had a 1943 caliber own rockets of 300 mm. In the argumen
t of these machines, which actually was not until the end of the second world war in other countries, howling, defeated Russian "Katyusha". Its shells made Langemak Russified Germans were superior to stuffing shells Wehrmacht in its destructive properties and effectiveness of fire. Russian won this dispute reaktivschiki also through the creation of mass divisions, regiments and even individual divisions of rocket artillery, which were reduced in the case of artillery breakthrough in all areas of the cerebral stroke. And practically, tearing and burning the enemy's defenses. Germany was not able to bring their units rocket artillery to such amount, which is located USSR army.
By the end of the war in the Russian army, there were more than 3,000 units of rocket artillery. It was a real triumph of Russian weapons and advanced military thought.
What did regard to the emergence name — "Katyusha", that fact was so far not deciphered. Certainly one that the composer and poet Blanter Isakovsky who created the legendary song in 1939, to the military — covert development of reactive systems had no case. But the song has become an emblem of courage and love Russian ladies who not only saw off their own loved ones and close to the front, and shoulder-to-shoulder with men-line soldiers, fought with the enemy in almost all military branches.
I am profoundly convinced, as the front began to receive the BM-13, issued at the "Compressor" and on the chassis of the machine iron was shaped as letters K. (letter of the manufacturer), then one of the nameless soldier, non-commissioned officers or Russian Army — referred to a harsh instrument of destruction naming his own lover, whose name was Katya.