Modern philosophical science defines the space and time as the universal forms of existence, the coordination sites. The space has three dimensions: length, width and height, and the time, only one — the direction from the past through the present to the future. Space and time exist objectively, outside and independent of consciousness.
By this definition, the time — is another form of the object. The second form.
But can there be a second form of existence? Can there be a piece of wood in the shape of the chair and at the same time in the form of a table?
Does not clarify the issue and the wording: the time has only one dimension — is the direction of the past through the present to the future.
What is the future? Surreal future, it does not exist in reality, it is an image.
Currently, too arbitrary, and may be somewhere between the future and the past, with the zero coordinates.
The past — this is what is not, it is rather a symbol, the same image. All these concepts have no physical meaning, which calls into question the very notion of time as a form of existence of matter.
In science, the main argument is experience. Who ever experimented to prove the existence of time in nature?
No one seems to do it, afraid to be as a man looking for a black cat in a dark room, where it can not be. In some cases, we will try to clarify this issue.
Earth's motion in time
In nature, everything is moving and constantly changing. Earth, going part of the way in its orbit, not only changes its position in space, but also changes herself. It becomes another.
Mentally fixing the Earth at some point, we will not get it the same at any other point. Therefore, can we say that the earth was such a part of the path for such a time when "that" the Earth is not?
We can not go back "in the last" of the earth, not because time is of the same direction, so that the "yesterday" of the Earth is not. It, like everything in nature is always changing.
Day and night. Seasons.
Observer located at mid-latitudes on Earth sees the day and know that a few hours ago it was night. From my experience it makes logical conclusion that, after a few hours of the night will come again.
Hence, he concludes that the frequency of events, and that they exist in time. Also for him periodically exist in time and summer and spring, winter and autumn.
But if this observer put into a spacecraft, flying in an orbit around the sun, the day and night, he will not be observed. Day, he will always be the part of the ship, facing the Sun, and the night on the other side. Frequency in this case is lost.
Being on the Earth's equator, the observer can not determine the change of seasons. At the equator, they are not.
It follows that the frequency of day and night, and as the seasons can not serve as evidence of an objectively existing time.
Very convincing evidence of the existence of absolute time is sound. It has existed continuously from the beginning to the decline. From which it is concluded that there is a sound over time.
Appears sound vibration of matter (a string, and so on) and is distributed in wave vibrations in the air.
Sound exists in gas, water and solids in the form of weak mechanical disturbances. Subjectively assessing the duration of the process sound, we identify it with time.
At the nearest neighbor of Earth, the moon there is no air, there was and sound. No sound anywhere in the universe. So, when he heard a sound in the air, on the ground, to conclude that the sound is in time is logical, but subjective.
It is common knowledge that all life on Earth is alive and growing over time. Everything has a beginning and an end. Corn, planted in the ground, grows and develops. Over what period of time the germ has reached its maturity?
Nature does not pose the question. All living things grow and develop, in accordance with the laws of nature. Can not be separated from the moment of planting seeds to reach maturity from the general process of life and believe that this period is the time.
This period is part of the overall development of the Earth, maturation of the soil, planting of grain maturity. The grain then falls into the earth and give a new life, and so on without end.
Here, the concept of time is as subjective. Misconception is that the development process is identified and separate a time.
Richard Feynman (1918-1988), American physicist, founder of quantum electrodynamics follows certain: the time — it's just a watch.
"Moscow time 12 hours — we hear on the radio — in Novosibirsk, 16 hours, 19 Vladivostok". The Japanese in Tokyo difference with Moscow is five hours. It is convenient.
What is that time is an absolute concept, which can be so free to go? You can find answers to this question. To perform this experiment. Mentally.
Imagine that we are in the stadium and see the athlete ran a hundred meters in 11 seconds. In the second race, he improved his score to 10.5 seconds. So what happened?
What happened was that the second time an athlete run faster, and the time it fell race. Time value of the secondary, the time depends on how quickly ran athlete and distance.
Let's not discuss the concept of absolute time alone, and do come back to the easy to understand the domestic time. Its emergence in the human mind goes back many centuries, with the tactile, and mankind has always tried to keep it under control.
Invented and built all sorts of devices: solar, water and the hourglass, pendulum clock with weights. Invented the wind-up clock, timer, stopwatch, and, finally, the electronic and atomic clocks. And they replace us what does not exist.
In Russia, there was no concept of time. Said this: meet two rounders. This is when your shadow is equal to the length of your two bast. Where people of different heights and lengths rounders are different, but proportional to its growth. It turned out pretty accurate, but only in sunny weather.
From the past to the future
Speaking of time well to remember the words of the song: "… There is only a moment, between the past and the future …" — a moment is nothing. Strictly speaking, this is not, it does not exist. The future is constantly flows into the past. At present, this Mige, this is nothing, and have the time, or rather the illusion of the existence of time.
If we define as the notion of covering past and future, it is from the past, which no longer exists and the future, which is not yet. In this case, time is composed of two variables, which are not. Consequently, there is no whole.
There are always and everywhere. Created by the human mind while surrounded us on all sides: in everyday life, in science, art and philosophy.
In philosophical judgment of existence of matter, we agree that one of the smallest particles of matter — the atom moves slowly in space and that the movement and space, speed, and distance determine the time.
But here arises from the unconscious counter all there in time! Time is always there! And unknowingly being done by some nadprostranstvennym education, it has become a kind of all-consuming monster and just because the time is full subconscious.
To suggest that there are parallel with the space also impossible because the space is infinite. Nothing, including the time and can not be "close" to the space.
The sky roared flying aircraft. An observer on the ground suggests that while the plane was flying from one point in the sky to the other, the time has passed. This is the normal daily assessment of the event.
The root cause of this event was the mind that created the aircraft, airports and ground services. The plane was designed for transportation. While he is on the ground there is no time for him.
When the aircraft reaches a speed and fly then, so-called, the flight time will depend on the speed and do the air path. Time value of the derivative. First was speed, speed.
If we consider the hypothesis of the Big Bang, with the emergence of the universe, the question arises: when the time? Prior to the explosion, at the time when there was an explosion or Homo sapiens, thinking man? The creators do not give an answer hypothesis.
Thinking person asks if the time ever came, in the form of what? And what properties?
We can answer that time — is the interval between two events. But the gap appears only as a result of his human comprehension. If we do not fix them in our minds, the objective events are separated in space with the irreversible motion of matter.
Time arises in our minds. And our consciousness replaces the irreversibility of motion of matter — over time, suggesting that it is the property of Time.
No less interesting is the theory of anisotropic universe, in which matter is compressed and expanded in different parts of the universe.
Confirmation of the contracting matter can serve black holes, in which space and time are compressed. As a consequence, there is the thesis of the direction of time: a black hole, it becomes counterproductive.
In time with the change of the direction the subsequent event must occur before the previous one. Figuratively speaking, the influence of time in the black hole can be seen as a dead man comes to life as he grows younger and returned to where born.
Thus it is possible to question the entire coherent theory of anisotropic universe, if not to take into account the existence of the illusory nature of time.
Pendulum, making swinging motions, very clearly illustrates the existence of an objectively existing time. While in the extreme point, it seems to freeze, and then moves to its other extreme point.
He moves in space and time. For passing from one extremity of the pendulum to the other takes time.
Moreover, if you look at the Foucault pendulum, we will see a graphic representation of time in bands left on the sand metal bars fixed on the ball of the pendulum.
Each successive strip several rotated relative to the previous strip. The ends of these bands are located at some distance from each other. This is quite evident to any observer.
But if the observer wants to share with us his discovery, and send us to Moscow, when we get to St. Isaac's Cathedral in St. Petersburg, where the pendulum, the pendulum will hang there still, and we will see that the time is stopped!
If the pendulum placed on any cosmic body, the effect is the same: the pendulum will stop and not only because there is resistance to the air on Earth, but because there is friction, gravity, and there can not be a perpetual motion machine.
At the household level
People sat down on the couch, watched TV and got up from the couch. Between "sat" and "rose" as time passed, people believe. He went outside and crossed to the other side. While he was crossing the street, as time passed, the person says.
A continuous process of life, man unknowingly crushes the individual events and the gap between them perceive as time.
All processes, from the smallest occurring in one's life, to global, such as flares, exist independently of time. Found two flares, we perceive the gap between them as time.
Unknowingly highlighting the gap between the flashes of the whole process of the Sun, we fall into the illusion of the existence of time.
From part to whole
Our thought processes unwittingly arranges milestones, benchmarks. A man can not cover everything. We see a large building, and our view is planing on its details. For these details we judge the building as a whole. And here lies the possibility of error.
On closer examination, the building may be a sham, made on the film studio. This layout can not live. Make generalizations on the details, you can make wrong conclusions about the whole.
In the global space contracting and found scattered galaxy. After compression, probably there is an explosion and a new star in the process of expansion. Elsewhere, there is one more, and we conclude that a star has appeared earlier, and the other later in time.
In fact, compression and expansion processes are common. They are numerous and are not the same amplitude. Otherwise, the universe would be uniform.
Placing landmarks in the time of the discovery of new stars, we give in to the illusion of time, which are spaced and their appearance, generally, to say that the stars and galaxies there in time.
In Siberia, the oil pipeline was built a few hundred kilometers. It began to pump oil. At the other end of the pipeline oil will soon. We say that it will take time until oil appears at the consumer. That's the argument, saying the existence of time. But do not be hasty.
Time in this case is characterized by a delay between the time of the pump and the appearance of oil on the other end of the pipe. What was the reason for the delay?
First, to answer the question of what caused the oil pumping. The primary cause was the mind that created the transfer pump, pipes and related equipment. When I started working pump oil because of its viscosity, could not immediately appear on the other end of the pipe.
If the same kind of steel pipe to pump gas, it would have gone the same distance faster. In the fiber-optic cable to the light overcame the distance almost instantly. Delay caused oil viscosity, friction in the pipe, turbulence, and similar objective reasons.
At equal other conditions for the passage of various substances on our pipe is different, but add that the time — measured, not an absolute.
The process of pumping oil exists objectively, but if you mentally out of the process to remove the tube, waiting motivation disappears, and with it the time.
Newton on time
Isaac Newton in his "Principia Mathematica" in 1687 distinguishes between:
1. Absolute, true, and mathematical time, also called duration.
2. Relative, apparent or mundane, time — a measure of the duration, are used in everyday life: the hour, day, month, year.
Emphasize that the absolute mathematical time do not exist. Mathematics, created by the human mind — it's only natural to display scalar numerical values. Comprehending the first definition of Newton, we must not fall into the logical trap: the time is and … escape the attention of the second definition of the time of Newton. In fact, the second definition absorbs the first.
In the theoretical developments, we always find ourselves in the "Newtonian trap" and talk about time as something that really exists.
The motion of matter characterized by speed. If you want to compare the speed of motion of two bodies should define them the same way and to bring the segments is an underlying notional amount comparable to the rhythmic processes in nature.
Typically use daily rotation of the Earth. One 1440 part — minute. That is the notional value (time), which can be used to compare the speed of the movement of our bodies investigated.
For convenience, we divide the path for a while and get the speed. But sharing the road at the time — is as absurd from the point of view of mathematics as a hodgepodge not divide into portions, and on bicycles.
The philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) argued that time itself does not exist, that it is only one of the forms of human perception of the world, the so-called correlation.
Bees in the Universe
Einstein's theory of relativity shows that simultaneity of events is not absolute but relative. This moment may not cover the entire universe. The same moment for the whole world can not be. In the world there is only "now", dividing the whole of past events and future events. Each system has its "now", its past and future.
Such systems in the world should be vast set. But it is enough to take the two systems, to realize that between them should be the boundary of the existence of time. All space in such a case would resemble a honeycomb, each with its own time and space. This conclusion leads us to the illusion of the existence of time.
In general relativity, Einstein claimed that as a result of gravity bends space and time. It is hard to dispute the great maestro, but to point out the inaccuracy we owe.
Space is by definition infinite, and infinity with no boundaries, can not be bent. The structure of space by gravity may in some parts of the pack and, as a result, the discharge in the neighboring regions. Can bend the trajectory of moving objects, but not the space itself.
Time can not be bent, because it simply does not exist.
Who discovered in nature where time and registered his discovery? What the properties of the time? Definition of time as the duration, the duration of a process requires a tool to measure it.
If we begin to measure time between any of the phases of the states of matter rhythmically working mechanism, for example, hours, time will always be different in its different measurements.
Because the next measurement will be in the "other" time. The experiment will be the time, we ourselves also, in his time, and he who does not take part in the experiment, too, will be living in their own time.
Let us hope for a Universal Time, which is based on the special theory of relativity can not be. There is no single "now" due to the fact that no information can be transmitted at a speed greater than the speed of light. Each frame will be the time (conditional), said Einstein.
What does the textbook
In any school physics textbook, we find a chart of the moving body. The diagram in the Euclidean geometry in the impossibility to represent three-dimensional space on a plane dropped applicate, and in its place is portrayed time coordinate.
If there is time in nature, coordinate time so you can not portray, because at the time the chart at zero coordinate is inside of matter, or vice versa — the matter is within the time.
But if we understand that time — a relative concept, the conventional time coordinate has the right to be!
In this example, we once again we see how the great illusion of the existence of time.
At the household level, the existence of time and obviously not in doubt. On the basis of the evidence is a logical conclusion, which is rooted in the public mind: Time was, is and will be.
This conclusion, which is dominated by the psychological factor is not based on objective data, experiment, why and gives a distorted picture of the understanding of the time, looking authentically. Here lies the illusion of the existence of time.
In this regard, we can not forget our fellow Russian philosopher Vladimir Soloviev (1853-1900).
He defined as the fundamental condition of all finite existence, and said that the time does not allow any empirical (based on experience) to explain the origin or rational (rational) of the definition of its essence.
And when they say that time is the order of events in sequence (read — in time), then the definition is obvious tautology:time determined by the time.
All philosophical explanation of time that will not empty tozhdesloviya are metaphysical in nature and will be discussed under the names of philosophers.
Phase theory, or how to prove the absence of a non-existent?
Our mind is matter in motion typically highlights some of its state, and the gap between the person perceives as time. Successive states of matter in the mind merge into a single "River of Time".
Analogue of this movement can serve as film, depicting the individual moments of the body. At a speed of projection 25 frames per second (more correctly in one 86,400 th part of the Earth around its axis) in our brain conjoint movement of the body is constant.
On separate frames we see the image of an already past in its phases. Secure the future can not be, because it does not exist in nature.
Any movement can be seen as consisting of separate phases. Therefore we can say that the matter is in constant motion phase.
The most obvious example is the phase of the moon, which is every night before us in its new phase. The growth process of plants is composed of seed germination, stem growth, the emergence of leaves and so on. He illustrates the phase development of biological objects. In the animal world, we have also seen the development phase of an individual.
The concept of "phase" is so natural that it is not about to say. But in this case, it focuses on the fact that any movement that seems to be joined, in fact, consists of individual segments called phases.
Now it becomes clear that the gap between the phases condition of the objects to be seen as the distance between them, and not the time.
Matter is constantly moving with a certain speed, and speed — the distance in an artificially created rhythmic period.
Of particular importance is the concept of the phase of existence (movement) in the quantum theory of matter.
Adding to the determination of the properties of matter, the term "phase" permanently removes the illusion of the existence of time. It becomes clear that the time — is not a natural phenomenon, and the phenomenon of the human mind.
Time phenomenonspontaneously arises in the mind whenever he reflects on the duration of an event or events.
Matter exists in three-dimensional infinite space in a constant relative phase motion.
A man comes into the world, into a society with established traditions and postulates. From childhood, people absorb the concepts that exist in society. He is psychologically difficult to question the seemingly obvious truth. But between "apparent" and true — a huge distance.
The great illusion of time is in the everyday consciousness and extends to the greatest minds of science.
PS: I hear the voice of the reader: "So I read your article. But from start to finish readingelapsed time! Start reading and the end — it's not an instant. Between them was a gap for a while. That kettle has boiled. He needed time to boil water. "
What can you say to this? Person is very difficult to turn away from the knowledge that the time in nature. While you read the article, no time is, it does not manifest itself, but as soon as you asked the question about the time it appeared in your consciousness.
Behind the wall of sleep your mother, and for her it was not your time. But as soon as she woke up, and said — "How long have I been asleep, it's time to get up" — in her mind, too, the notion of time. His.
Objectively, you and your mother lived in accordance with nature. But once you have evaluated the events in your mind the notion of time. Only you and only in connection with your interests.
Well, sort things out themselves with tea or read the article from the beginning.
AG Spirkin, Philosophy, 2001, pp. 253-254.
V. Soloviev, "Time", Art.
Newton "Principia Mathematica", Homily, 1687
Einstein, Relativity, 1905-1916 gg
AN Vasilevsky, 1996 The theory of illusion art, page 211.
Statements on time:
Three things belong to the man, the soul, the body and the time (… e se pure alcuna si pateva chiamare nostra queste erana le sole tre — … anima, corpo e tempo).
While there is a thought or action, not the essence.
Of the unknown in the surrounding nature is the most unknown time, because no one knows what time and how to manage it.
Time — the distance of movement.
Time, perhaps, there is, however, we do not know where to be found.
And in my thoughts did not fit that was ever a time when there was no time.
Time passes differently for different people.
In fact, any time, as really existing by itself did not really related to anything outside does not exist. What exists? And there it is outside — there are real processes. And the time — just a means to measure them. Time — a "centimeter" and nothing more. Without this external, time not only does not exist, it loses all meaning.
Just as there is no length as the primary entity. Length — is a means of measuring something external, real-life. Just as there is no weight as the primary entity. Weight — is a measuring something external, real-life.
Far be it really exists — will not be needed in terms of "weight", "length", "square", "volume", "time". All these dimensional categories themselves do not exist, they are secondary and are tied to something external. What weight? The volume of what? The area of what? What time?
No time by itself will not flow or completely, like Newton or relative, as Einstein. Flow (move) the actual processes of the phenomenal world. There will be no process, there will be need for the concept of "time."
Alexander N. Vasilevski