Bring to your attention, a little-known and incredibly versatile fighter project Alexeev. Which, in other circumstances could be the main fighter-interceptor and fighter escorts Russian Air Force in the 50's.
Semyon Mikhailovich Alekseev has brought a great contribution to the establishment of fighter La-5 and La-7, working in the Lavochkin Design Bureau, in 1943, was the first deputy head of the designer. In September 1946, was promoted to head the newly made designer of OKB-21. As head of the OKB-21, Alekseev was tasked to design and build a rocket fighter-interceptor, which owns a significant range and flight duration with massive weaponry.
One of the main problems of the first jet fighters, and Russian and zabugornyh was a small range. In response to the need for the creation of remote interceptor, OKB-21, under the control of SM Alexeyev was engaged in the development of this aircraft. First draft, I-210 (S-21 model 0) had to have two motors RD-20 (BMW 003), their thrust was apparently insufficient considered as a substitute for RD-10 (UMO-004), but Eventually it was decided to build fighter with 2 engines AM Cradles TR-2 thrust 1350 kgf.
I-211 (I-21 Model 1)
This variant was designated And-211 (I-21 Model 1), the scheme of the aircraft looked like Sukhoi Su-11OKB with that same power plant. The engines were placed in the plane of the wing. It goes straight wing, trapezoid. I-211 had an aerodynamic brake pads, automatically opening when the critical speed manual them to maneuver in flight and reduce the landing speed. The tail feathers in the form of a cross-shaped front. Pressurized cabin. Tricycle landing gear with dual wheels all cleaned racks in the fuselage. In the forward part of the fuselage installed a powerful spotlight to facilitate interception or landing at night. Construction — dyuralyuminovaya with extensive use of the B-95.
Very massive armament consisted of three 37-mm guns, H-37, with all this gun would be changed into two 57-mm H-57 directly at the airport. (!) Apart from the gun arms were provided for the suspension components bombs and reconnaissance equipment.
The complex radio equipment was the standard for long and included the radio RCI-6-10M radiopolukompas RPKO and radiootvechik "friend or foe" MF-3
The project was approved, and in late 1946, the plant number 21, the construction of a static test airframe and flying layout.
Meanwhile, the development of motor TP-2 was delayed and finally, Alekseev decided to adjust the nacelle under the TR-1, whose static tests began in July 1946. According to the schedule, the layout had to be made to the June 28, 1947, July 10 aircraft were to pass the flight tests that were supposed to finish by August 1. This schedule has been associated with the tradition of showing new models of fighter planes on air parade in Tushino in honor of day or the Soviet Air Force, which fell on August 18.
But it was impossible to keep the schedule. I-211 did not take part in aviaparada 1947, and the first flight made running a test pilot AA Popov, in the fall of the same year.
BASIC Properties of I-211 (the calculated data with engines that develop full thrust)
Type: the model of single-seat fighter
Propulsion: two turbojet engine TR-1 thrust of 13.29 kN
Properties: the maximum speed at sea level 935 km / h, the time to climb to 5,000 m — 3 min; range 1550 km
Masses: empty 4360 kg 7450 kg maximum take-off
Dimensions: Span 12.25 m Length 11.54 m Height 3.68 m Wing area 25.00 m '
The first is 6 flights showed no special advantages I-211 before the same fighter Sukhoi Su-11, in addition, clearly manifested nedovedennost TR-1 engines. They were set up in a big hurry, which affected the reliability, traction engine was also slightly lower than the declared (real thrust was 70% of the theoretical). One of the engines has become unstable and broke down so often that is not enough spare parts for the repair, which for the most experienced engine produced in limited quantity. Soon programm design TR-1 was phased out, and right behind it, and the subsequent work on I-211. Also, when landing, landing gear wheels hit a pothole on the runway and one of the landing gear gave way, so that the plane made a significant distance "on the belly" and flew beyond the runway. The aircraft received minor damage to the underside of the fuselage and engine nacelles, and was returned to the factory for repair.
The data acquired during the test in autumn 1947, did not satisfy the Soviet Air Force. As in the case of the Su-11, the basic premise of trouble was the unavailability of engines TR-1A and TS-2, which has not been reported in the bureau Cradles to production. Engines TR-1, in turn, were not massive and very unreliable for use in a production fighter.
I-211 with DB-83
I-211 aircraft with a beautiful view from the cockpit and potentially very massive cannon armament could be a very effective fighter for its time, if not for the engines, do not have the level of reliability of the tribute. At its base Alekseev developed a preliminary design of the piston fighter escort, the order for which was received after the end of industrial test-211 with 2mp-1.
Machine planned for the distant escort aircraft Tu-4.
With the same amount of fuel tanks and at much more economical piston engines, which by the mid-40s. have been perfected to the high reliability and manufacturability lovely, such a fighter escort was more applicable on many items, from production to use. Motor group were taken from the front-line single-seat fighter La-9, in which the mass production of the SM. Alekseev perceived most concrete role, and it seemed to use their same operating time. Masloradiatornye installation, local collector outputs from the exhaust port
of the motor, easy automation of the 1st of the last piston engines, all of this has been repeated for the fighter escort-211 with 2-rotor power groups.
The distance between the longitudinal axis of the turbojet and PD was similar, or rather it has not changed since was entirely appropriate for the 2-bit smallest diameter screws (propellers with four-steel) 2.9 m to 3 m
Gondolas engines AL-83 had to make anew, and only dvigatelty hoods that are not subject to change, would remain intact.
The project was not completed, because by the time the series was not running a distant version of the aircraft, "134", the designation of La 11.
I-215 (I-21 Model 5)
After the rise of the Soviet Union in the UK licensed engines "Derwent V» (the same as standing on the "Meteor") Aleekseev decided during the repair of I-211, set it on these engines. With the newest power plant, the fighter received the designation of I-215 (I-21 Model 5)
The car, while maintaining the unusual fuselage-211 was modified. In a sock fuselage made radar sight, cockpit hermetic, ejection seat. The machine equipped with on-board radar, armed with 3 37-mm cannon N-37, with provision for another option arms, two aerogun H-57 caliber 57 mm.
I-215 was a single-seat fighter-interceptor, by type and size of repeats I-211, but with 2 engines "Derwent-V" (1590 kgf thrust). The purpose of the I-215 — an act against the bombers.
Plane was released at the end of 1947 the first flight was made pilot Alexander Popov. Flew as testers — AA Efimov. SN Anokhin and ML Gallay.
Performance properties of the modified fighter-interceptor-215 a few have become better. Namely, the maximum speed increased to 970 km / h at sea level and 960 km / h at an altitude of six thousand meters, range have gained 1,700 km, and from navesnoymi fuel tanks and even more — 2,300 km.
Immediately was built version of the I-215D (Understudy) with a bike rack. On this machine, the landing gear was separated from the center of mass of the device, which gave the opportunity to stand back "squat" for the growth of the angle of attack of the wing on the run. In contrast to the aircraft with the ordinary tricycle landing gear, this car, as they say the pilots, "undermine" the movement of the handle itself was unnecessary. The installation angle of the wing 3 ╟ 30 'and' squat 'doing the right lift for take-off. On the rise of the vertical component of working traction engines, rearing on 3 ╟ from horizontal, and pitching moment thrust turbojet engine, located below the center of mass of the aircraft at 1,034 m due to suspension pylon.
Another unusual modification was I-216. This I-215 for the installation of a modified 2-76-mm automatic cannon Nudelman H-76 (!) Ammunition with 15 rounds per gun.
Machine weight increased to 7,500 kg .. The estimated top speed, 930 km / h So Makarov, I-216 could be the fighter with the most massive artillery weapons in the world.
Along with the development of the I-215, in 1948, Alexeyev started working through the preliminary design of a fighter with swept wings. This project was internally designation I-211c (Arrow). It was one of the first projects of Russian fighter with swept wings. The project was not brought to the construction of the prototype in connection with the closing of KB. The car was similar to the Yak-25, which was adopted three years later.
In short, the Air Force and Air Defense of the USSR have the opportunity to get a decent versatile machine with different variations of a powerful cannon armament (3h37mm, 2h57mm, 2h76mm).
But these promising car and ran into a series.
In autumn 1948 the OKB-21, like some others, was closed. Gorky's OKB-21 was closed, and his manager S. Alekseev was transferred to another job, he took over the company, which collected "captured" German aircraft designers. In general, the same fate understood and Sukhoi Design Bureau and Myasishcheva in which creates a series of highly unique machines. Since then, all the "Fighter Theme" became a 2-organizations — the MiG and Yak …