Hosni Mubarak, Egypt's past president, living out their last days. He dies of cancer. Doctors do not give a guarantee that he will be able to live up to June 2012, the time when he will be declared the verdict. For having committed crimes prosecutor requests death sentence. But most likely, the sentence will not be carried into execution, and Mubarak will leave this world, so do not open it all their own puzzles.
Hosni Mubarak — one of the more mysterious political leaders in the world. Stroll rumors that he once worked with the CIA, the KGB and intelligence services of Saudi Arabia. To this day it remains a mystery how he ended up in the near surroundings of Presidents of Egypt — Gamal Abdel Nasser and Anwar Sadat. Evil tongues they say that to achieve this, he has promoted foreign intelligence agencies, but no evidence of this has yet been found.
The future president of Egypt was born in May 1928 in the province of Manufiya. His father owned a small plot of ground, also worked in the legal department of the provincial. Mubarak was trained aggressively, because the ancestors of bezotstupno encouraged him to continue his studies at the Faculty of Arts at Cairo luxury institute, but the guy made their own choices.
The war that broke out in 1948 with Israel, has substantiated that the Arab army dysfunctional. Because it began a rapid influx of young people, in the main from the countryside. Junior Mubarak has chosen profession pilot. In 1949, he graduated with distinction military Institute, served in the Sinai, also worked as an instructor at the Air Force Academy.
In 50 years, not once visited the Russian Alliance, was an intern on flights on modern aircraft that the Soviet Union supplied to Egypt.
In 1956, he took part in the Anglo-French-Israeli conflict, during which proved to be a capable pilot. As a result, in 1959, Mubarak was appointed commander of a squadron of bombers Tu-16. After a couple of years he was the commander of the brigade. Also in 1959, he was sent for training in military flight school in the Russian town of Tokmak Union. Mubarak higher military education received in the Frunze Academy in the USSR, where he studied in 1964-1965. On his return from the Soviet Union was appointed commander of the air base in Cairo.
Specifically, his stay in the Russian Union has become a prerequisite for many disputes about what Mubarak has turned into "prokommunista." For example, in the memoirs of Lieutenant-General Vadim Kirpichenko outdoor exploration, Mubarak did not once tried to recruit. One of these cases occurred during the visit of the Egyptian delegation to the reception to Khrushchev. The reception was attended by Ukrainian and Moldovan lady, who began as a feast, began to molest young military pilot with proposals to drink. But Mubarak has led a healthy lifestyle, do not drink or smoke. Because an attempt to make a "honey trap" failed miserably. Later, Mubarak had a love affair with his teacher of Russian language Milloy. But it was only half-Russian, from the mother had Jewish roots. Mubarak received the news the other day out of the Soviet Union, a similar marriage was not feasible for obvious reasons. So Makarov, and the second was a failed attempt to recruit.
One of the most difficult trials for the country was defeating the Egyptian army of Israel, with the result that was actually quite destroyed aircraft. After the war, Mubarak was appointed head of the military institution in Bilbeyse, putting the task to reduce the time of training pilots and thus Makar, to increment the number.
The activities of Mubarak did not go unnoticed by President Gamal Abdel Nasser, which in 1969, sets the rank of general aviation pilot and appointed him to the position of Chief of Staff of the Egyptian Air Force. A couple of years later, in 1972, Mubarak has been the commander of the Air Force, once serving as a deputy defense minister.
Stay on these positions gave him the opportunity to reorganize the Egyptian aviation, which has not previously met the requirements of the present, and prepare it for war against Israel, which began in 1973. As a result, Mubarak received from President Sadat's "Star of Sinai" and the rank of General of the Army.
What did for his success in politics, in this direction start in life he gave Sadat when he declared deputy prime minister. It happened in 1975. President motivated own choice is simple: in Mubarak had properties such as dedication, perseverance and competence. Himself Mubarak was surprised by such a purpose, because, as he said, he wanted vsekrete get Chief of the General Staff of the Egyptian Army.
Sadat himself, as it turns out, played a double game. He led a furtive conversation with the Yankees, while at the same time, another Russian Union. Leonid Brezhnev even gave him the Golden Star of the Hero of the Soviet Union. In the long-Russian Union did not want to believe in Sadat's betrayal, believing that the Egyptian favorite is just fine political game. Therefore I do not have relied on Mubarak, not trying to win him over to their side. Deputy Prime Minister underestimated and Western favorites.
So, it looks interesting trait passed British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, in what they say about Mubarak as a joyful and affable man, is not particularly brain. At the same time, it was called a ferocious, able to lead a decent fight with opponents. Thus, according to the 1st Western diplomat, Mubarak and remained a military commander, which waiting for obedience in response to his orders.
But like any kind, Hosni Mubarak became the second person in the country and began to teach the art of political maneuvers. Moreover, to improve their own abilities in Mubarak was quite abilities — Sadat made him a kind of roving ambassador, laid on his own assistants perform a more savory and heavy orders. A frequent trip limit for the president in his desire to take their rightful place in international politics, a broker Mubarak to strengthen their position inside the country. First, he started with the reorganization of the militia and hidden services.
About this time he married. His wife, Suzanne Mubarak, bore him two sons, and had a very significant impact on your own wife. For such an effect even dubbed it the people "mother Suzanne." Some representatives of the Russian secret service agent called her western exposure, as certain facts in her biography suggest the similar thoughts. The lady was born in 1941 in Menii, the son of a nurse and doctor-Welshwoman-Egyptian. Suzanne has received education in Cairo at St. Clare, in 1977 received a bachelor's degree from the Cairo Institute for South American, and 5 years later he became a master of sociology. In 1978, the wedding was accomplished with Hosni Mubarak. The lady led an active social and political activities. In 1998 she was awarded the Tolerance Prize for his contribution to the struggle for the rights of women and babies European Academy. Since February 2000, is the noble physician Cairo South American Arts Institute.
In over 6 years Mubarak has pursued the policy of Sadat. He was appreciated for the intelligence, strength, natural resource, and equity, efficiency, and integrity. In spite of the corruption that prevailed in the country, Mubarak managed to stay away from this. And up until now many call him "Mr. Honesty". Maybe he'd still be as vice-premier, if not killing Sadat promoted it on the ladder of polit
ical career by making the president.
From the previous ruler Mubarak government inherited from the monarchical rule, which was isolated in the middle of other Arab states and had a large outdoor debts. He managed to secure the transfer of power to a new political twist with virtually no errors. First he freed all political prisoners. The organization, which has made murder of Sadat, were brought to the tribunal, after that most of them were sent to jail, and the second penalty. It soon became clear that one of the extremist groups, the new president was sentenced to death. But thanks to the intelligence he was able to refract the tide in their favor.
It should be noted that in the near future in almost all Egyptian media disk imaging there are reports of active cooperation Mubarak with Egypt's General Intelligence Service. But experts are convinced that this is just a smart move in order to "roll out" over his possible successor, in the real control services Omar Suleiman al-Rifai.
The President Mubarak had many critics. He was criticized for it neizyskannuyu, moderate suits and excessive timidity. Opponents in one voice saying that he lacks the scope in order to be a real political favorite. Yet, this did not prevent Mubarak's 30 years of rule by the state and become the second person in the world in terms of personal income. So, purchase any of the intelligence services of the world are unlikely to be published.
According to the data posted in the magazine Spear's, its revenues are equal to 73 billion dollars, an increase of 1 billion less than that of Carlos Slim — the most secured person in the world, and 10 billion more than Bill Gates. In this regard, it is worth noting that the official president's salary was less than $ 800 per month.
Of course, Mubarak's lawyer said that in all the years its own military and political career, he has not earned, and 1 million bucks and not amassed any property. But here's some reason to believe it is not very …