Diamonds for orders made from platinum nezapyatannoy took from the royal treasury, but synthetic rubies were
This was the highest in the USSR merit, intended only for the supreme commanders. But Stalin, who ordered her to do not realize that the capital jeweler Ivan Kazennov, master of highly qualified, are inserted into the Order of precious stones, he fooled. And later revealed this secret until just before death.
In the summer of 1943, when it became clear that the Soviet Union defeated Hitler's Germany, Stalin decided to make an unusual merit especially for senior military commanders. Immediately given the task to several artists and medalists. He made the first sketch of the latest services, which at first was called "For loyalty to the Motherland", a member of staff of the rear of the Red Army, Colonel Nikolai Neelov. But his project was not approved. Preference is given a sketch of Anatoly Kuznetsov, who was the founder of the Order is Russian war. His project was a five-pointed star with a central circular medallion, which were located reliefs of Lenin and Stalin.
The project showed Stalin. But he gave the order to put an image instead of the bas-reliefs of the Spasskaya Tower of the Kremlin. In October Kuznetsov introduced seven new leader of the sketches, of which Stalin chose one with the word "victory", giving an indication to use platinum instead of gold, to enlarge the size of the Spasskaya Tower, and the background to blue. After that, the order was given to a sample copy of the order.
Orders entered the Moscow Jewelry Factory-hour (it was the first order, which did not at the Mint). But once there were difficulties. Since there was no problems with platinum, diamonds taken from the royal stock, but suitable for rubies rays reddish star was not found. Master of highly qualified Ivan Kazennov collected them from all over Moscow, but all the precious stones were of different sizes and varied in color. What to do? Masters enveloped panic because he knew about the order of Stalin — used to order only the materials of Russian origin. But where to get the necessary orders for rubies? Dates were set tight, and time to search for them no choice.
Then at your own risk Kazennov decided to use for the Order of synthetic rubies. He does not say about it, and the secret revealed only to the death of his own apprentice for many years after the death of Stalin.
Then the first order of "victory" showed the leader, and he caught his fancy. Stalin gave the order to make a total of 20 pieces of difficulties merit. A November 8, 1943 issued a decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on the establishment of the Order. It was intended to merit "persons senior commanders of the Red Army for the successful operation on the scale of the 1st or several fronts, as a result of which the situation radically changed in favor of the Russian Armed Forces."
For the production of the first copy of the finest and most expensive in the Order of the USSR used 170 diamonds total weight of 16 carats and 300 grams of platinum nezapyatannoy also rubies, which, as we have already mentioned, were synthetic. Jewelry distinguished by special order of the CPC. It was also largest in size order in the Soviet Union — the distance between opposing points in the star was 72 mm. It must be worn on the left, not the right side of the chest on the reddish belt with greenish stripes, blue, red, blue, orange, and dark colors.
Marshal Zhukov was two orders of the "Victory"
But immediately the new order no one bestowed. Only April 10, 1944 became known the names of the first 3 of his knights: the owner of the Order of the sign number one became the commander of the 1st Ukrainian Front, Marshal Zhukov, Russian Union of Jora, № 2 — Chief of Staff of the Head, marshal Alexander Vasilevsky and number 3 — Supreme Commander Marshal Joseph Stalin. Awarding was timed to the release of right-bank Ukraine.
A lot of the recipients was in 1945, when Germany was defeated: Marshals Rokossovsky, Konev, Malinovsky, Tolbuhin, talk, Tymoshenko also Army General Antonov. Zhukov and Vasilevsky in the same year was awarded the medal again. In June 1945, during the second time the Order "Victory" was awarded the Stalin himself, and by the end of the war with Japan was credited Marshal Meretskov.
The merits of foreigners
Order the "Victory" also presented some figures of the anti-Hitler coalition commander in chief of the Yugoslav People's Liberation Army, Tito, Chief of the Polish Army General Rola-Zymierski, British Field Marshal Montgomery and South American General Eisenhower. And received the Order of the Romanian ruler Mihai I.
Romania, as you know, waged war on the side of Nazi Germany, but when its borders came reddish army arrested the dictator Mihai Antonescu, Romania announced its withdrawal from the war and ended all military actions against the Allies. Specifically for it — "a courageous act of a decisive turn in the direction of the policy of Romania break with Hitler's Germany and the alliance with the United Nations," as stated in the resolution, Stalin decided to reward him.
New, the seventeenth, knight appeared only after 30 years. They became "our way" Leonid Ilyich, which uveshivat adored himself merit. Order the "Victory" was given the general secretary in February 1978, on the eve of the 60th anniversary of the Russian army. Although Brezhnev, of course, did not have awards that are consistent with the status of the highest merit. In general, specifically for that after death he was stripped of her.
Kalinin gives the order "Victory" Stalin
Where are they now?
Such expensive and beautiful decorations in the world slightly. Adjutant General Eisenhower's memoirs, when the latter was awarded the Order of the "Victory", he recounted the long and comfortable diamonds, and said that he is more than 18 thousand dollars (in the prevailing prices). But to find the price of rubies South American experts could not, because I have never beheld such huge stones, and pluck them out of order and inspect whether they are synthetic, they did not.
In today's time the order is worth more than a million dollars (according to other estimates, more than 4 million). According to rumors, specifically for that amount sold his ruler Mihai I South American billionaire Rockefeller. But the lord has never been recognized in the act of sale. But when he arrived in Moscow to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the Victory of the Order it was not, although al
l the other achievements of King flaunted his posh uniform.
Now whereabouts of all other orders of the "Victory" is clear. Merit handed Russian generals, also Polish Marshal, are in the Central Museum of the Armed Forces. A merit handed to foreigners — in the museums of their states.