Immediately the reservation that in view of the fact that no nuclear weapons in Germany until the end of the war and did not appear (that the Nazis were very far from the creation of this bomb, says most of the serious historians), intercontinental ballistic missiles, if still could have done would have to stuff an ordinary bomb that was used by the Nazis during the attack on the British island. Because a decisive turning point in the war, Hitler would not headed for under any criteria. Significantly disrupt the South American infrastructure with possible missile attacks Germans, of course, would not have succeeded, but the political significance of such strike, of course, would have had. Rocket, spacecraft ever to location U.S., would be the emblem and the possibility of continuing the fight Nazi Germany on the back strike.
Because the Nazis, what is called, clutching at straws, trying hard to develop their own technological superiority over the Western Allies. To realize a terrific plan, involving the application of rocket attacks on the United States, Enron their winged "V-1" and the ballistic "V-2" whacked only 300 km, was apparently not enough. Nazi war required extraordinary breakthrough solutions, both from the standpoint of technology, as well as from the standpoint of strategy for the rocket attacks.
At first, Hitler offered the designers to modify the serial "V-2" so makarom to run them with the latest submarines Series XXI, being in the vicinity of a particular U.S. shores. But this thought, which seemed completely embodied, she found support for Hitler and his admirals. In addition, ships and submarines lacked, well, just a modernization of missiles would not be able to do — had to be redone and submarines that the criteria for the end of 1944 was for Germany's quite an impossible task.
Then and design genius of von Braun refers to the old sketches, dated 1940, yet describing the process of building a two-stage intercontinental ballistic missile, the first stage of which, in fact, would represent an enhanced modification of the same "V-2". Second step was to contain within itself the warhead, and, most importantly, be equipped with swept wings, which, on the idea of designers, and had to make an intercontinental missile, at times increasing the range of its flight.
By assumption, the 1st of the employees of Dr. von Braun Tielya, multiple rocket power growth can be achieved by combining standard motors from 6 "V-2" in a single bearing unit. As you know, this principle, which is then applied to the Russian and American missiles. In the first step, the Nazis planned to use as a fuel mixture of oil with benzene, then planned to go to the watery hydrogen. These ideas of von Braun and his team are also embodied in the boosters the near future, in the U.S. the "Atlas".
It must be said that the pace of work and inspiration with which the designers worked Peenemunde, can not but cause reverence. The result of their efforts was the modernized standard "V-2" with increased motor power and a range of 800 km. But the most important aspect was that the rocket designers seemed neither more nor less than a manned missile, with a cabin for the pilot. At the turn of the years 1944-1945 was made two test missile launch. According to the results of the second test, rocket was able to reach a height of 90 km. On this success Nazi rocket scientists in terms of implementing the "Project America" safely over, but a significant part of them still had found its embodiment, albeit in the form of drawings.
One of the drawings depicts von Braun's rocket, equipped with wings, landing gear and brake parachute. In fact, before us is a way of so-called stratospheric aggressor — aircraft capable of speeds up to 2,900 kilometers per hour and is able to rise to 95 km, flying up to 800 km.
Von Braun, of course, was ahead of its time. In the years 1944-1945 Germany was at war, in which the widespread use of rocket aircraft was not realistic or feasible. The era of wars of the future then was already on the threshold, but has not yet occurred. Required for its coming downfall of Germany, its complete defeat …
Yet, by the early spring of 1945 the victorious von Braun designed the project quite a two-stage rocket, designed to carry out an excellent plan of attack on America. As expected, the first step is an enlarged flight model "V-2", which had in its womb not 6, but only one powerful engine. The second stage was a swept wing flying. Weight of the structure at the start — 85 tons, speed — 10,600 km / h, range — 4800 km. So makarom not Stay rocket von Braun, albeit excellent, but the drawing, in the area of the possible reach of the latest German rocket might be New-york and Washington.
But the main crux of the matter was not to speed, and not even in the missile range, and in the height of its line of motion. At the point of climax rocket was to achieve a height of 338 km, and this is a real space. So Makar, the pilot product, code name of the A-9 machine would not only suicide or possible prisoners of war (in case of evacuation from the beads after referral to the target), and the world's first astronaut! And this idea was worried dreamed of conquering the space gallakticheskogo von Braun even stronger ability of missile strikes by the U.S. countryside.
Subject missile programs from Nazi Germany is a breeding ground for numerous falsifications mythologising history of the Third Reich and the emergence in some print publications, the media and the web of magic frank absurdity associated with the history of German rocketry. Of course only one thing: the success of the Germans in the missile sphere were enormous, and it continues to generate and multiply absurd conjectures related to the subject of legend. Rocket Science has become the industry in which Germany was able for many years to overtake the world. That's why the race for technological secrets of the Nazis began even before the war ended. In this race kerf all the world powers, but that being said, it is another story …