There are fundamental to the Greek (Byzantine) sources of complete identity of the Scythians and the ruses of early Middle Ages. One of the earliest Greek writers, which Russ mentioned (Rosov), was the Patriarch Photios, which emits almost hatred of "Scythian, and cruel, and barbaric people" — a Russian army after the siege of Constantinople in 860. With all this Christian hierarch also noted that Russ is not only barbaric, and wandering people. It's almost exactly a reference to the Azov-Black Sea region of Russia, which was the direct heir of stateliness of Scythia (Sarmatia).
It should be noted that for Photios and other Greek (romeyskoe) creators of the image of "the people grew up" sharply negative and one hundred percent the same as the unkind attitude to the Scythians, which was common in Greece during the time of Herodotus. In practice, it was a 2-confrontation of civilizations, one was a mercenary, usurious in its own base, and the other, the northern (Russian), was was based on the concepts of honor, justice, and creative work. This confrontation with varying success lasts until the actual day or. Russian civilization of the West is the "other" northern "Mordor", where people are willing to give life "for his friends' home. In Russia retained the notion of the primacy of public over the personal, an advantage of spirit over matter.
Recognizable historian Leo the Deacon, who has left for us a precious description of Sviatoslav Igorevich trips to Bulgaria, and the description of the majestic Russian Champion, Russian soldiers stubbornly calls "tavroskifami," in other words, the Crimean Scythians. Historian even said that the title "Russian" folksy and "Scythians" — the true, scientific. So Makar, we have data Greek, Eastern sources which mention the Azov-Black Sea Russia. These data also reinforce and Russian sources: Nikon, Nikanorovskaya, Ioakimovskaya Chronicle, The Legend of Slovenia and the town of Rousse and Slovenian. Even the Tale of Bygone Years calls the Black Sea, "Russian", but those who live on its shores tribal unions "Great Scythia."
Confirms the data of written sources and archeology. Of course, in the 8th century in the Crimea was inhabited by the Russian, then found a huge amount of items Slavic-Russian origin. In Korsun and south-eastern part of the peninsula found Slavic gun, cult objects with inscriptions in Russian language, Slavic dishes and other household items. At the same time, it is believed that in the Crimea at that time lived descendants tavroskifov and Sarmatians. Of course, the Sarmatians could not for so little time "turn" in the Slavs, because of large population movements in the Crimea during this period is not fixed. The Crimean peninsula does not extend into the area of movement of the Slavic Union, which came from the Balkan Peninsula. We have to admit that the Crimean Slavs 8-9 centuries. and there Sarmatians — tavroskify — Russes.
You also have to say that many eastern creators called Don, "the river of the Slavs", "Russian River". Al-Masudi noted that at the majestic river Tanais (Don) "many settlements of the Slavs." What is the first mention of the Slavic population of the lower Don refers to the year 737. This year, the Arab forces under the brother of Caliph Marwan ibn Muhammad during the war with the Khazars invaded the North Caucasus, the Khazars defeated and devastated land on the lower Don, taking the prisoner to 20 thousand Slavic families. Slavs planned to settle in the lands of the Caliphate for border security. Slavs at that time were known as good fighters and sources report to their constant presence in the wars of the Arab Caliphate, the Byzantine Empire and the Khazars. Initially, they were located in Kakheti. But soon the Slavs rebelled and destroyed the governor and his soldiers marched to their homeland. But behold the shores of his native river it was not necessary, the Arab army caught up with them and almost all exterminated.
According to the creator of the 13th century Arab Fakhr al-Din Mubarakshahu in the Khazar Kaganate (Slavs in general accounted for a significant portion of the population of the Khazars) borrowed writing in Russian, who lived nearby. Of course, that refers to the Black Sea Russes, "tavroskify." This is further proof that Russ had written for a long time before it "created" "Slovenian teachers' Cyril and Methodius. In fact, in "The Life of St.. Cyril "also tells about the old Russian literature. Constantine the Philosopher (Cyril), while in the southern settlements of the Crimea, there acquainted with books that have been written, "Russian writings." Specifically, these letters were seized as a base for the development of "Cyrillic". Therefore, when a day of Slavic Literature and Culture (day of Saints Cyril and Methodius) they say about the "creation" of the brothers of the Russian literature, this is an obvious misinformation. Russian writing has been for a long time before the Christianization of Rus. Moreover, the researchers report back even several forms of Slavic-Russian literature that existed in pagan Russia.
There is no hesitation that the Arab and Greek creators of "Pontiac" Russ tavroskify — are Slavs. Byzantine sources do not distinguish between fact and of the Black Sea and Russia Prydniprovska, treating them as parts of a whole, unified culture. In their eyes, "Scythians", "tavroskify" identical rusam, Russian. But Russian chronicles, reporting on the "Great Scythia," which shook their campaigns of Constantinople, Constantinople, used the term "Russian" in its real sense, not separating niskolechko Russ 9th century, from his contemporaries. As correctly noted researcher NI Vasiliev: "… putting the" Rus "7-9 cent. exclusively in the Dnieper in Kiev area, and giving all the steppe zone of the East European Plain in some "non-Russians" nations, historians do not simply make a mistake, but can be unforgivable spoofing "(NI Vasiliev, Yu D. Petukhov. Scythia Russian) . This region has been inhabited from time immemorial one commonality — superethnos Russes.
Fascinating fact that the traces of the old Slavic heritage are found in the North Caucasus. Shore Nogmov in "Tradition Adygeans some use for the history of Russia", placed in 1850 in the journal "Moskovityanine", told about Adyg antskogo legends about heroes and about how these anty-Slavs waged war with the Goths, Huns, Avars and Romeans- Byzantines. I must say that Nogmov collected for the majestic Russian writer Alexander Pushkin Circassian stories, legends, songs. Epic Adygeans thoroughly knows about three antskogo heroes: Buse (Baksan), Laurel (Lavristane) and Mezanmire Idariche (Maremiho, scion of Idar). Name Busa we find in the Gothic historian Jordan in his book about the origin and acts ready. According to his story, the prince Vinitar captured and executed 70 antskogo fiercely princes headed by Busom. The Russian "Lay" reported: "And reddish gothic maiden sang on the shore blue sea, calling Russian with gold: sing while VAN …".
Nogmov translated mourning for slain enemies antskogo cowardly prince of his sister: "Heroism Booth highlights antskogo people their virtues. About the birthplace of Busa
, although it is not already in the middle of the living, but when will you produce Gut (Goth) — who do not obey! All the people honored him for his good spirit: and when the fight started hitting shone like lightning, his presence among the people to settle in the Antes confidence. Gutskie (Gothic) torture does not stop, all the people came to despair, as eight pairs of oxen brought his body home. "
Other Slavic hero Lavritu, Circassian tradition called Lavristanom. He, according to the song, to ransom captives included the wife of the Byzantine province of Moesia and Dacia. It says to us about the wars of the Slavic and Byzantine Empire Ants. Circassian song says that after the Avar Kagan "Baikal" (Bayan) claimed by Lavrity tribute. Antes said "proud and nasty words," in response to the Avars were also talk back, eventually led to their deaths. Having a reason for war, the lord of the Avar troops moved into the lands of the Ants, and Lavrita died defending their homeland.
Received at the hands of the Avars and the other death Slavic Prince — Mezanmir Idarich, which is called Maremiho Avar legend, the son of Idar. This leader has died during an accident Embassy — Antes whispered Kagan foe that killed Prince Mezanmira, to cope with the Ants will be much easier.
Another track from the neighborhood with the Slavs remained in the folklore of the Chechen people. In the legends mentioned some Chechens Piro or Piron padchah (Sultan). In the first tale he is credited with almost divine power of the Creator: "… Piron-Sultan made the heavens and the earth." In the 2nd legend Piron has opposed "God" — not that Allah is not the Christian God, not one of the tribal deities vainakhov. Right up to the 19th century Mohammedanism in Chechnya coexisted with idolatry and Christianity, while the complete victory of Islam — it coincided with the period of activation of royal policy in the Caucasus. "Piro was arguing with God. At the edge of the universe, he built sheds made of bronze, like heaven. Piro on them noisily rolled barrels, poured out of their water. " Another legend reports that Piron made copper vaults of heaven. He made give rise to self-made vaults of heaven and pour out the water. There are stories in which Piron from the underground world of people took to the first mill. Also knows that the stern lord Piron had great respect for the old, loved kids and prohibitively esteemed bread, for contempt of being punished very severely. The last commandment is very amazing for highland peoples, the backbone of which were herding, hunting and raiding their neighbors.
Of course, that Piro — is Slavic god of thunder Perun. He is "responsible" for the thunder and lightning, sent to earth by rains "cloud nine", which called fork or Beregin (ladies who Piron-Perun forced to pour water from copper heaven). Contact forks with the rain was unbreakable — another Russian ladies hats 12th century chain-Ryasno depicting rain hanging on the edges of the face, ended with pendants Colt, which portrayed the fork (birds with women's faces). Perun, according to legends, written in white Russia, flies in the sky riding a millstone. A legend in the Slovak reported that he angrily punishes those who disrespectful with the bread. Relationship with the God of Thunder, "the production of bread" yavna.
Copper sky, "kingdom" is constantly mentioned in Russian legends, parables, komplotah: I'll get up … blessings, and go to the sign of the cross unblemished field and wash the dew, and zoreyu bright, reddish utrusya sun light podpoyashusya month obtychusya small part of the stars, the sky is covered with copper . " In the Christian "heavenly governors" Michael-Archangel (as we litsezreem and features Perun) asked Orthodox soldier has shut his "iron and copper sky".
Even barrels that rolled over copper sky ladies' Pirona "have a relationship with the Slavic legends. In honor of the God of Thunder his ceremonial weapon — a club (the first instrument of older people), the rollicking good fellows in the villages horutan tried to get out of the saddle and break an old barrel, which was hung in the main square of the village on the most revered and An old tree. Villagers at this time singing ceremonial songs. A Novgorod in 1358 "utverdishasya among themselves by kissing the cross, to them of playing a demonic dislikes and drums are not biti" (pagan gods Protz this time for Russian Christians have become demons). Yet Alexander Afanasyev in the "Poetry views on the nature of the Slavs" correlated these two news and came to the conclusion that it is a rite in honor of Perun, which symbolizes his barrel thunder clouds, full of drunken moisture rain.
Another core of the Russian state was "Varangian Rus' (Wends). It consisted of vast areas of Central Europe. Often researchers are wrong to try to adapt to the Arab authors, who are obviously concerned Varangian Rus, a country of the future Kievan Rus. Thus, the Persian founder 1st half of X century Ibn Rust says the "country of the Rus', which is located on a peninsula surrounded by the lake (sea). King of the Rus called "Haq". The main occupation of the Rus war and trade. In many cities they live richly Russes, without exception wear gold bracelets. The guests were treated with respect and cherish them in every way. A newborn little boy grant blade with a wish that gun purchase for yourself welfare. Taken judicial duels (God tribunal). Healers Russes "even command the king." At Russ accepted human sacrifice. Also adopted the custom of burial of one of the wives with the deceased spouse (the custom in India — sati was distributed directly to the 19th century, when it forbade the English). "They are brave and courageous, and if you attack other people, do not fall behind until they kill him one hundred percent. Losers destroy or turn into slaves. But courage is not a stallion show, and all of their raids and campaigns make the ships. "
Of course, these tiers are not Slavs of the Danube plain or Dnieper. Nor can it be Russ Azov-Black Sea Russia. Heirs majestically beautiful Scythian warriors were horsemen, and inherited the tradition of "Scythian ploughmen." Not peculiar to the Slavs and the Rus Russian plains human sacrifice, ruthlessness towards the vanquished. But all signs indicate that the country Russes ", is the land of Veneti-wends Wends. The peninsula surrounded by the lake (sea) — a peninsula Ruyan (modern Rügen) in the Baltic Sea. This naikrupneyshy peninsula in the borders of modern Germany — total area of 926 km ². Then the residence of the 1st of the more notable rulers wends, who held the title "Kagan of the North" ("Hakan Nortanorum"). Influential clerics, whose power is higher than the prince — is sacred priesthood Arkona, the town and religious center ruyan. There housed one of the most important sanctuaries of Varangian Rus — Temple Svyatovit.
Venda according Eastern sources have a huge number of cities. And it confirms the manuscript of "Bavarian Geographer" (or table Vostochnofrankskaya tribes) IX century. It is reported that Wiltz (lyutichi) had 95 grads, northern Obodrits — 53 town, eastern Obodrits — more than 100 cities, Sorbs (Serbians) — 50 towns, clay (included in obodritsky Alliance) — 7 cities etc. Venda is also known for development of handicrafts and trade. Not in vain their town after the Germanization and Christianization became the basis for the famous Hansa.
It should also be noted that the Western Russes ("Vikings"), as a "boundary" branch superethnos Russes, which was the first to receive the blow of Christian Rome and its "Teutonic Knights", differed rage that bordered on brutality. This allowed them to withstand several centuries terrible blow
s of Western "crusaders" that burned with fire and sword the ancient heritage of Russian civilization in Europe. On the eastern Slavs and rusah not be said that they are "losers destroy or enslaved." Western Russ lived on a "live with wolves — a wolf howl." Not for nothing is one of the most important alliances of tribes called Wiltz-wolves lyutichami-savage. Vikings feared throughout Western Europe, their warships reached the Iberian Peninsula, and entered the Mediterranean Sea, devastating the coast of Italy. There was a bloody and ruthless war between Christian Rome with his vassals, otrinuvshimi faith Protz Slavic kings and municipalities. It was a war of destruction. The result was sad to superethnos Russ (Russian-Slavic civilization). Varangian Rus was destroyed, its population mostly Germanized. Another part of the Slavic world — fields-Poles, Czechs, Moravians, Croats and other Christianized, subordinated the Roman throne, in many ways by depriving them of Slavic code (applets). They made the inventory, a tool in the fight against a more stable eastern nucleus superethnos Russes.
Remorseless (in the eyes of the Eastern Rus, the Slavs) was displayed in the custom of human sacrifice. This custom was a stranger to the southern and eastern Slavs rusam-Scythians. They kept a clean tradition of Russian Faith. Thus, it is clear that when the Rus-Vikings (their significant element came to the Russian land with Rurik and his brothers) tried to enter the custom of human sacrifice in Kiev, it caused a nationwide outrage.
At the same time, we can state that Eastern and Western Russia were quite different cultures. The general properties of a character, faith, customs and way of life was much greater than the differences. Both were true to the old religious tradition that came from the time of Indo-Aryans, state and communal (national-aristocratic) formation, were valiant in battle, preferring death to slavery and captivity.
So, to the era of early Middle Ages was formed two major ethnocultural and linguistic core superethnos Russ in Northern Eurasia. First core — it Varangian Rus in North, Central and parts of Eastern Europe (future Novgorod lands). Apparently, initially Varangian Rus was secondary to the Azov-Black Sea of Russia, which was the direct heir of the Scythian-Sarmatian stateliness. Not in vain it was called "Borus, Borussia" (the old prefix "bo-" initially meant another, extra). Later, this area became known as "Prussia", ie, Porus. Wends Wends were porubezhnye splinter majestically Scythia. But as the crisis on the main areas of Scythia geopolitical center of gravity has shifted to the Varangian Rus, which ultimately gave the world the eastern part of the Russian ruling dynasty — Rurik.
Second core — in South-Eastern Europe, The Black Sea-Azov Russ, which was the direct heir of stateliness Scythia. But this center is in crisis, he had been of strongest pressure from the South (Byzantium, the Khazars, a Turkic people, and even the Arabs). Russ-tavroskify Eastern steppes actually lost touch with the "Scythian-Siberian world" and eventually defeated in the struggle for influence in the crotch area of the Slavs — Danube, Dniester, Dnieper, rusam-Vikings. In the coming part of the Azov-Black Sea Russia was subject to the Khazars, another part went into the sphere of influence "Novgorod and Kievan Rus'.
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