This paper — a patchwork of future book. It's about the character — a cross with bent ends, existed at the dawn of our ancestors with the historical development of mankind. The earliest archaeological findings in the Little dated XVIII-XIII century BC / Bibikova, 1965 Shovkoplyas, 1965 /. It is often found on physical media Tripoli culture V-II millennium BC, which calls academician B.A.Rybakov Slavonic. Prominent Czech Slavic L.Niderle linked Mycenaean III-II millennium BC, is replete with various types yargi (swastika), with the Aryan tribes, not excluding that it was the Slavs. Clothes and towels XVIII-HHvekov decorated yargami, are found in many local history and ethnographic museums in Russia. Agricultural Fair in the summer of 2001, held in St. Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod region of artisans selling, as of old, tablecloths featuring yargi.
The curious reader, seeing clear word, will look in the dictionary, but can not find it neither Ozhegova nor Ushakov nor Vasmer, but also in the more complete the Great and ancient dictionaries Dahl and Sreznevskii. No it and mythological dictionary, and the dictionary of symbols.
But we do not dwell on the obvious and spend etymological investigation.
Words with the root yar prevalent in colloquial, literary and technical language of the Slavic peoples: bright (1. Giving a strong light shining, 2. Sharp in purity and freshness of tone; 3. Strong and impressive), crude (1. Furious 2. Passionately loyal, dedicated, and 3. bright light, sparkling), rage (1. strong anger 2. pressure, indomitable), spring (annuals sown in spring and maturing in summer or fall), rage (be angry, excited) bright (young, still yagnivshayasya sheep). This is an extract from the Dictionary of Ozhegova, some concepts have registry — obsolete or folksy.
In the Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language, the material for which Vladimir Dal compiled in the mid-nineteenth century, given a wider meaning: adjective ardent — a fiery, passionate, hot, white, shiny, bright, angry, angry, bitter, passionate, strong, strong, severe, sharp, fast, lively, neuderzhny, fast, extremely proud, zealous, hot, lustful, verb yarit — infuriate, hot, boiling, angry, anger, incite lust. The dictionary Dahl is such thing as Xph, Yasmin, yaritsa, yarovina — plant soil strength, juice, fat. In the etymological dictionary of the Russian language Vasmer: Yar — Spring, Xph — spring bread ardent bee — the first swarm in the hive summer Yarovikov — animal or plant this year. Ivanov and Toporov Famintsyn and lead Fasmer familiar words of Slavic languages: Ukrainian Xph — spring, summer grain yary, spring — spring, summer, ancient Russian Private Yar — also spring, summer, Bulgarian Yar — Spring, Czech jaro — Spring , jary — spring, this year's spring; Slovenian jar — Spring, jary — fresh, Polish jar and jarz — Spring, jary — this year, spring.
In the Dictionary of Old Russian Sreznevskii: Yar — Spring and outspoken — spring, summer (but also angry, an angry, quarrelsome, violent, severe, bold, brave, strong, gusty) Xph-spring grain and yaritsa — spring wheat bread; yarky — light, bright and sparkling, but also stern and angry. Sreznevsky Old Russian word rage (which should be written with a skid, but not with me, as it is written) equates to anger, fury, ardor, fervor, rigor, rigor, but also the fun. An interesting interpretation of the word yarm = yarm: not only the yoke, but the weight, measure, scale (in particular, as the title of zodiacal constellations). By the way, Dahl is yarem not only as a yoke, the yoke, the wooden clamp on working cattle, but as a busy season haymaking and harvest.
So, words with the root yar carry yaruyu force of spring and the sun, they contain refreshing and plodozachinayuschee beginning. In these words there is a fervent wildness that can occur from severe anger to merriment.
All these qualities have Yarila, Yarylo — ancient Slavic god from whom raging earth and all living things. "Worship Yarily and lush, unchaste revels arising under the influence of this worship — everything our forefather's vision clearly affected sacred triumph of life over death, for Christian moralists were" action "unclean, cursed and demonic; against them constantly heard protest Christianity. Although the age-old custom of not quickly lost edification of Christian preachers, until late in the festival Yarilova similar free declaration of love, kisses and hugs, and a mother willing to send their daughters to ponevestitsya merrymaking "[1, I. c. 446].
I want to note one more interesting detail, perhaps it is not obvious, but can be traced: Yasmin, yarna — wool, bright — young sheep; Yar — lamb (in Lithuanian eras, eris — lamb, erena — lamb; drevneprussky eristian — lamb, Latin aries — the ram, etc.) on the astronomical calendar year begins with the vernal equinox, when the sun comes into Aries-sheep (aries) and the patron of this sign is Mars (Ares) — furious, the spring god (later better known only as the God of War ), antique double our Yarily.
The root of the ravine known in ancient Indo-European languages as a measure of time, and other bases. Slavonic jar akin to Avestan auar, uar — year, Gothic jer and German Jahr — year Greek? — Time of year, it's time;?? — Time year. In English, the year — a year, and yard — a yard measure of length. One yard is equal to 0.9144 meters (yards Russian equals 0.7112 meters, which corresponds to 16 inches, two Arshin be three cubits, and three — six feet).
For fans to dig to the bottom to add that in the spoken language is sometimes a replacement I f or e, and therefore often can be found in dictionaries identical in meaning words such as EGA — Yaga, egolnik — Yagolnik, Egunov — Yagun, yaralash — pie, Yergali — Yergali, Ergakov — yargak, erlyk — Mark, eryga — yaryga. It will be interesting to add that before the vowels e or i can appear dull or g x: erlyga — yarlyga — crook — General eneral, Helena — Helena — Helena, which allows you to expand your search.
To date, not enough for anyone to be a revelation that the Russian and Sanskrit languages have common roots and its etymology are closest. Sanskrit-Russian dictionary word ga (Ga) translates as: 1) running, and 2) finding somewhere. To this semantic nest gagana word is defined as the airspace, the sky. Another word — gagano-gati — translated as god, the planet [9, c. 8]. Referring to ancient Indian mythology. In the Rig Veda there is mention of the Ganges — the heavenly river. Holy Ganges — it Izlivshayasya land of the Ganges. Brahma's wife called Gayatri (al-ind. Gayatri — song from ga — sing). It is, according to tradition, is the life breath and found the mother of four Vedas. Old Indian word svarga consists of two parts: welding — the light, the sky and ha — walking, that is, movement of light across the sky, the movement of heavenly light [25, c. 43]. Hence the ancient Russian Vedic God the Father, the heavenly God Svarog, sometimes called Svarga. Probably Gayomart (avest. gallo — a living, Martan — death) — the hero of Iranian mythology, the father of mankind, the first death — also has to do with our history.
In Russian words beginning with m and relevant traffic is quite difficult to find. Ganit — ganyati, ie chase, chase, gatit — to pave the way for Carr, halite (Ukrainian) — to encourage, advise, galits (belorus.) — to encourage, to adjust.
In the Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language VIDal more than a thousand words ending in m. In total, over half a million Russian language words. Note that an intellectual is a person who has the vocabulary of a 2 ~ 2.5 thousand words, the writers have in their arsenal of 6 ~ 8000, and scholars of Pushkin counted in his vocabulary of about 12,000 words. Most people at home costs about half to two thousand words. Consequently, the number of words with the root end ha commensurate with the vocabulary luggage ordinary person.
Word blizzard sipuga, blizzard, purdega, south, Fugue mean huge movement of air masses with the snow. Selenge — wind on Lake Baikal and the river flows into it. Words related to the movement of the water and in the water: Krieg, slush — a floating ice; rovga — ice in the ground, under the ground, earthen water; rynchaga — floating ice that was behind an the torso; kalega, kalyaga — wet snow, slush, bad weather, squabbling, plow — pool, slough, kick — pool in the river, Yemin with water neprosyshnaya pool, meadows — a clean place on the overgrown lake, frozen puddle, hag, Corgi — stone spear or filler range, Reef, swampy place in the forest. Many rivers and lakes, which are, on the one hand, water roads, and on the other hand, they carry that move water Volga, Gavinga, Gaga, Ganga, indigo, Iokanga, Ladoga, Meadows, Mga, Mologa, Nyanga, Onega, Pechenga, Sviyaga, Selenge, Khatanga and many others. Fish names: Beluga, Kaluga, ludoga, sturgeon, salmon, tulpega and items related to water: flasks — flat keg, which carry in the field of water, brew; Maselga — fishing tackle. Words related to the movement: the road — a place in space where the traffic and the movement itself, and the means of transportation — foot, drag, cart, rattletrap, lemega, kolyga.
Consider other words: money — current coin of any kind; alarm — vanity, confusion, concern, sudden noises, etc. bulg — vanity, of unrest, anxiety klyaga — foot elbow, knees, buldyga — restless, bezpokoyny, playboy; lovchaga — agile, clever guy, lively, agile, suitable for all; vastega — jump, jump in the running deer Pichuga — bird, bird, male genital member; letiga — flying pautinnik; Saryg — bird of prey buzzard, kite, sitnyaga — amiable, sweet man, Tuga — grief, sadness, sorrow, grief, sheromyga — rod and rogue; yuraga — izboiny, churning, skolotiny, remnants of a downed oil, witch, Baba Yaga, Baba Yaga — born witch in the guise of an ugly old woman; Yang — ladle, iron ladle, in no Cossacks on the march cook soup. Many words are unfamiliar to us, others recite every day, but they all, in one way or another, connected with the movement, walking, moving mostly not by the will of man.
And here we come close to our object of study: Yarlyga, crook — crook Ovcara: fathoms shestik with wooden or metal hook, Kojima catch sheep by the hind leg (hence yarlyzhny hook). Yarig — sackcloth yariga — sacking, denim, clothing. In the "Dictionary of the Great Olonets dialect" yarga find the word, which denotes a wooden slingshot with a load that is used to remove water from the sunken, detached network / Kulikovskii, 1898. Pp. 22 /. All these items are associated with the hooks, the Flyers.
In Solvychegodsk county was common children's game called "Yergali." The game was to get the ball in the excavated pits. After a miss, which was called "egg", missing "Yergali", ie each hit the ball in the back saying, "on the cake, the shangi on soft bread, pokatushniki. Yergali not Yergali, ram does not bar the powiat slept in the mesh … ". Beaten up until Overshot not guess he thinks of the puzzle. Point of the game, as we see, was to implement the ability to accurately move and get to the hole, under which the original could mean a place embodying beginning of the creation of life.
Yergali or Yergali in Vyatka dialect means fidget, crawl, fidget. In Perm word Yergali understood to fight, cringe, squirm [4, I, c. 1207, 23, II, c. 22]. The word entered the unusual sense of movement.
In Ostashkov near Kalinin region during combustion Carnival on higher ground, burnt items raised on poles, and the children cried, "Jürg-carnival is on fire!". 
In the 80-ies of XX century. field expedition scientists Zagorski (Sergiev Posad) State Historical and Art Museum collected in the villages and surrounding areas Zemetchinskogo Penza artifacts — clothing, utensils, tools and handicrafts etc. The village Ushinka head of the department of ancient clothing museum B. M.Zhiguleva recorded "one of the oldest symbols solar sign a swastika with" yarga "" [6, c. 5]. in 1995 in the anniversary edition of the museum V.M.Zhiguleva clarified that the word yarga "ushintsy called each one of solar images in a complex swastika "[7, c. 236, 11, c. 143].
In one of the field outputs (leave) their neighbors asking about skirts, I was pleasantly surprised that my fellow countrymen a swastika, a cross with bent ends as well as ushintsy called yargoy. But my surprise there was no point where I realized that yargoy, yargami call and all the series of geometric shapes on podpodolnikah woven skirts and shirts. My neighbor's first offense for meticulous questioning of yargah, saying to me, 'You're INTO, izdyavaeshsya INTO whether Tsavo questioned something, or have forgotten everything. " I must say that the last twenty-five years after entering military service, I have almost every year to visit his village and am always in front of the neighbors, it's the misled them about the potential of my knowledge about yarge. Do not rule out that as a child I have heard the word, but then it went by my mind. Talking to the neighbors and the oldest old women of the village will bring the basic concepts. All older women and especially old women s.Vyazemki ever woven webs, now called the word not only the sign but also woven series of patterns on skirts and shirts, and, as the most proper way yargoy woven and other signs [12, p. 13, 13, p. 151-153].
In villages Vyazemka, Bol. and Mal. Izhmory, Ushinka formed in the 17th century came from Ryazan, Tambov and Moscow districts, still portrayed in the three-field blue (red stripes) swinging heavy skirts Bran — the prototype of the modern skirts. Basis for their weaving was taken hemp and wool weft. But it is the external characteristic of archaic clothing, domestic same content is enclosed in an elaborate wide patterned, abused, yargicheskom podpodolnike. At different periods of his life, a woman wearing a variety of skirts, differing from each other by the number yargov (odd number of 11 to 1), the width and color patterns on podpodolnike, reflecting its spiritual, moral and physiological state. Horizontally arranged rows yargi-form a kind of solar-cosmic calendar life.
First skirts — the good, the beautiful succession of 11-yargah # — young woman wore a wedding. From that moment the bride becomes "sissy" and is being filmed skirts to the end of his life. In the period chadorodny woman wore skirts of eleven, nine, seven and five yargah. Girl, not married and not worn skirts with life-giving sun signs.
Sooner or later, a woman loses her reproductive capacity of women and turns into an old woman. Each time is defined for itself and put on skirts of 3 yargah. Closer to 75 years of one worn skirts yarge. Deep old women were called legoschetski. This skirts, made of the same three paintings, but the "fabric" of the technology was making an ordinary canvas, was light, which gave the name of such skirts. Bran heavy skirts were several times heavier legoschetski who can not afford to wear old women. Yarga on legoshetske wove a narrow white stripe, without any patterns.
Life is not only weekdays. The first day of great celebrations women dressed in skirts of 9-11-yargah — the most festive one available. The next day put on 7-9-yargah on the third day — about a 5-7-yargah. In everyday wear skirts on 5-yargah or rather worn on 7, 9, 11-yargah. In festive skirts width Branagh was wider patterns, colors — juicy, colorful, intricate patterns. New skirts considered more festive being equally certain features.
But life is not going smoothly. Died close relatives — the women wore skirts sad pattern, mostly recruited in white. In the first year of sadness woman wore skirts in one YSU. The next two years — about 3 yargah. Coming out of the sadness, she again wore skirts, appropriate to their age. Soldier, after seeing her husband in the army, or the war, wore skirts sad about three yargah until his return. Sad widow wore white clothes and skirts of one yarge life.
What, after all, called the sign in Russia?
One of the oldest names mark was maintained for a long time in our alphabet. The letter, which is now modestly (perilous) is called ha, before the reform of the Russian language was of sonorous name of her (I think there is no need to explain what a dick and talk about his role in the extension of a sort). Sign of x can be formed by two characters: r and S, each of which is rotational motion from the opposite direction, and when added together is understood as the rune of balance, mark the beginning. If we add the two digits g or S, deployed in 180o, we find YSU collect or yielding.
The Ryazan B.A.Kuftina materials shows that the peasant knew some name of a cross with bent ends (Ryazan yargi, Fig. 1-7). Simple yarga horses was called, or how to explain peasant konevnymi shank (Fig. 2). Bran archaic Ryazan konitnitsa skirts, received its name from a simple yargi placed in a diamond (Fig. 5) [14, c. 60].
Famous narodoved N.F.Sumtsov leads maloroskoe name of a cross with bent ends chetyrenog name (Figure 9, 16, 17), and three-legged yarga on the egg in his collection called root (Fig. 9) [21, c.33, 36] . Root — a plant, a red flower, a symbol of love. Also in Malorosii called magic fern flower, blooms in midsummer midnight. To the one who finds and picks a flower, love, luck and happiness will accompany life. Malorosami compound in the title of the day of solstice, and the magic flower girl love emphasizes original archaic title character yargi linking together the divine nature of the sun, human fertility and life of nature. It is important to emphasize that in this popular understanding yarga tripod is also directly linked to the sun, the good and happiness. This characteristic yarga-root and Yarylo Kupala have a match.
In villages Poochya YSU called hawk. In Tula, and Orel provinces at the beginning of the XX century, which has been widely distributed in the pattern yargi lozenges, said Mogilyansky name crow eyes. In Vologda cross with bent ends called jib. This name not only reflects the shape of the sign, but also has the ease and rapidity of movement.
Great-Voronezh Province. YSU traditionally called valgus (Figure 1) [15, c. 153]. In villages Kirillov Syademka, Red Oakwood (formerly Tambov Province.) I am often called the sign krivonoshkoy, bowlegged. In Kargopol this sign, baked on the day of the vernal equinox in the hen is called vyuha (Fig. 18). In villages Duhovschinskogo district of Smolensk province was extended name zavivasty Chrest (Smolensk yargi, Fig. 10, 13, 14, 15). So named YSU, which is a square with curved ends (Fig. 10) [10, p. 121]. Cross with curved ends are often called Kolovrat — as well as the movement of the sun in a circle, solstice, kolovraschene. The names yargi with great force emerges symbolism rapid light movement.
On the first day of the wedding, before the arrival of the bride and groom's Swat wore skirts sad about 3 yargah. It was only after its transfer to the genus man's young wife was changing in skirts of 11-yargov filled with all the power of the red patterns of solar energy.
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Message about the authors of this article.
Kutenkov Pavel, born Zemetchinskogo district of Penza region, colonel of the Russian army. During perestroika began an active interest in the traditional culture of the Rus, collected and processed the wealth of material on rituals, dress, symbolism. Preparing an exhibition on traditional clothing, conducts public speaking, writing scientific articles.
Materials collected P.I.Kutenkovym, processing and additions — A.G.Rezunkova