January 14, 2012 17:18
At the end of XIX century German meteorologist N. Bedige published a startling message. "Night March 27, 1898 the crew of the Pacific Bremen ship" Matador "was not a little scared amazing Fata Morgana.
In the seventh bottle night (otherwise — half an hour before midnight) on watch noticed on the leeward side, about two miles, a large sailing ship, fighting the storm, although the range of ocean was completely calm. Meanwhile, an unknown vessel exert all their strength to fight raging elements. In bright moonlight tropics, when the night is almost as light as day, you could see the huge waves that rolling through the nose and foaming, ran along the deck. Sailors "Matador" gathered on the deck with pale faces, fearfully awaiting some terrible outcome … "
Ghost ship suddenly changed course and found himself in front of "The Matador." The crew was terrified in anticipation of the inevitable collision, some men tried to jump overboard. But the mysterious ship again abruptly changed course.
While it flew to sail to the south, taking with him the waves and the wind, the "Matador" saw a bright light in the two ports of the captain's cabin suddenly went out, and a minute later disappeared, and the mysterious ship.
In one of the port cities of Chile captain "Matador" Gerkens acquainted with the report of the Danish ship captain, you go there for three weeks before. It said that on the night of March 27, about midnight, during a violent storm in the captain's cabin lamp explosion, and senior navigator totally burnt. Dates of frightened crew of "Matador" vision and commit to report the incident to coincide, which allowed to communicate with the mirage of a real event that occurred in the Danish ship caught in a storm.
When the whereabouts of the two courts, it appears that the distance between the "Matador" and the Danish vessel during occurrence of this mirage was equal to 1700 km, in addition, in the time described in the Pacific raged really strong storm. "
So, according to this report, you can sometimes see what is hidden behind the far horizon. But how is this possible?
As light travels? Spoon in a glass of tea seems broken. Why? The reason is the different densities of water and air. Passing from one medium to another — from the less dense air to the denser water, the light rays are refracted, changing a straight path, and leaning toward the denser medium. It is a law of physics.
In the air, the light rays is also not straightforward. When a ray of light from a single layer of air density falls into a layer of density, it is rejected.
Most often, the refraction of light rays in the air slightly, visual, items not removed and is not appreciably distorted. But there is another way.
Here we watched the captain of the vessel close to the North Pole. The ship was among ice ridges and rubble ice fields, a spark in the dazzling rays of the sun. Suddenly, things that are far away, climbed up and hung in the air. Before the astonished sailors have large icebergs, snow field with ice bar, wavy beach with hills. Even more surprising picture observed in 1878, American soldiers from Fort Abraham Lincoln. Half an hour before the mirage of the fort came squad, and then saw him marching across the sky! Talking about the fact that the detachment was killed, the souls of men. Mystery? No!
In the air, under certain circumstances, the formation of "atmospheric mirror." One of the layers of air acquires the ability to reflect light rays. This happens early in the morning, when the lower layers of air remain strong cooling by contact with the ground, and the top layers are warmer. In this case, one of the upper layers of the air begins to reflect on itself, like a mirror, everything that is on the earth's surface. In such circumstances, you can see and what is beyond the horizon. In the air, there are remote islands, mountains, sailing ships. So one traveler saw the sea in Italy inverted image of a city hanging in the air. Clearly visible houses, towers, streets. Startled, he hastened to sketch what he saw, and then, after a few miles, came to the city itself, the image is in the air I saw earlier.
Closer you an example: in the twenty-five miles from St. Petersburg, on the Gulf of Finland, lies the town of Lomonosov. St. Petersburg is usually seen here is very bad. However, there are days when residents see it clearly. His image appears in the air. Then from the University clearly shows the reflection of the Neva River, bridges, tall buildings.
Since ancient times, is a legend of the Ghost Ship — Flying Dutchman. His captain was convicted of blasphemy ever worn on the seas and oceans, never dropping anchor. The meeting with this terrible sailboat, according to the sailors, presaged a shipwreck.
Many told us that they have seen with their own eyes that ship. In this case, all the stories were like the Flying Dutchman suddenly appeared in front of the ships, completely silent, sailed straight for them, not responding to the signals, and then just as suddenly disappeared in the fog.
This old legend might have generated superior mirages. Sailors saw the reflection of distant ships, which normally can not be seen, taking them each time for a mystical sailboat.
Mirages often appear when there is no wind breaks air mirror. But the air is not afraid of the mirror light air vibrations. When the air layers of different densities are in motion in the air a distorted picture. An interesting thing happened in the XIX century, with the expedition of the Swedish explorer Nordenskiöld. The case was in Chukotka. Near the parking lot of the expedition saw the great white bear. People rushed to the guns. But at the moment when one of them was going to pull the trigger, the bear … straightened huge wings and flew into the air. On the fly, he slowly began to decrease, and, much to the surprise of the hunters, only an ordinary tea.
Observed that the superior mirages often approach us distant objects and increase their size, and sometimes make the picture more clear, clear. Here is an eyewitness account by Ivanov: "The steppe is only slightly reminiscent of its former appearance. It was different, to date, fantastic. Distant objects were not in place. They came close to half our house. Usually gray, dull, they were now seen with unusual clarity.
Particular attention is drawn to the surface. She has lost all signs of convexity. Conversely, if the steppe down (vognulas) with barrows, towers and other objects and is now a huge bowl at the bottom of which we are. All subjects were drowned in the bowl, and they did not reach the top of its edges. They are now designed not against the sky, as always, and the background to find new, previously unseen steppes. There were visible other unfamiliar objects, buildings and whole villages with orderly rows of houses. If someone had added the entire circumference of the new space of land, filling it with new facilities. Horizon rose, expanded and was perfectly even and unrecognizable. Concave impression was so real, that clearly could see the long snake steppe roads and trails that go down the slopes to the center Bazhigana where we stood.
Strange, but we can clearly see how a man came out of the house and walked down the road. Clearly seen waving his hands. Usually never without binoculars at a distance of no man, nor even his hands did not see. "
Here we meet with something enigmatic. It is clear that, except in the mirror reflection in the atmosphere, is still valid, and a magnifying glass. But what? Knows something else: how far can you see with atmospheric mirror.
Hastings — a city in the English Channel coast. Before the French coast in this place about seventy miles. That can be seen at a distance? Here's an eyewitness account: "July 26 (1797), about five o'clock in the afternoon … I was told that the coast of France were clearly distinguishable to the naked eye. Immediately went to the bank, I was quite surprised to find that, even without the aid of a telescope can see quite clearly the opposite bank of the rock … They seemed at a distance of a few miles. I continued my walk along the beach, talking to sailors and fishermen. Soon, when the rock seemed to have risen even more, my companions were able to specify and give me different places, they often visited, — Gulf, the "old head" windmill near Boulogne, Saint-Valery and other places on the coast of Picardy. In a telescope were clearly distinguishable French fishing boats, different colors of soil in the hills, and even buildings … I'm sure all of the inquiries that have been able to do that as a wonderful spectacle of atmospheric refraction has never been observed and older residents of Hastings. "
Another example. American Buffalo is eighty kilometers from the Canadian city of Toronto, on the shores of Lake Ontario. There was a case when the people saw the bell tower of Buffalo churches, ships in the harbor of Toronto.
In 1815 there was a famous in the history of the Napoleonic wars, the battle of Waterloo. In the book "Atmosphere" French scientist Camille Flammarion leads to the residents of the Belgian city of Verviers, who saw in the sky that day armed men. Between Waterloo and Verviers — one hundred and five kilometers. And significantly, the mirage passes outlines of distant objects as if to their doorstep. Buffalo residents have seen in the harbor of Toronto small sailing boats, and in Verviers even seen that one of the guns broken wheel.
In 1927, aviator Charles Lindbergh flew across the Atlantic. Three hundred kilometers from the coast of Ireland, he saw the land — the hills and trees. It was a mirage. He lasted a few minutes.
And residents of the Côte d'Azur in France sometimes see the outlines of the mountains on the island of Corsica, located two hundred kilometers.
It turns out, as if we actually see distant objects reflected in a huge air lens.
Perhaps the image of distant objects are passed as a chain of mirages — from one to the other?
And finally, the most striking case of "The Matador" and the Danish vessel, which we began acquainted with mirages. It is very difficult to explain. One must conclude that the optical mechanism mirages there are many more outstanding.