November 14, 2011 22:41
"Drawings Kanozero. The discovery, study, preservation "- the book by that name recently published two days ago in Murmansk had her presentation. Author — revdinets Vadim Likhachev, a graduate of the Leningrad Mining Institute and the St. Petersburg State University. In 2005, he specialized in "visual anthropology" at the University of the Norwegian city of Tromso. From 2004 — expert Kola Biodiversity Conservation Center.
Petroglyphs Kanozero he explores in 1997. According to him, the book summarizes the information stored for 14 years and reflected mainly in scientific reports and catalogs. "Drawings Kanozero" refers to the popular scientific literature and are designed for a wide range of readers. Not much is left of the unknown places on earth, but they are!
The publication was prepared Kola Biodiversity Conservation Center in collaboration with Kola archaeological expedition. The author tells of a place where open petroglyphs, about how our ancient writings found countrymen settled in this region after the melting of the last glacier.
Special attention is paid to create a natural park on Kanozero and river Umba. For us northerners, the book is particularly interesting. For here it is — amazing. Close.
Greetings from the Early Neolithic
— Vadim, how come until 1997 in the stone library, collected by researchers in Scandinavia and on the coast of the White Sea, was not "book" Petroglyphs of the Kola Peninsula?
— Probably affected by many factors, including the irony. For example, it is known that in 1910, the Swedish anthropologist and archaeologist Gustav Halstrem, famous for his monographs on the work of an inscription of Ancient Scandinavia, during one of the expeditions crossed Kanozero. Judging by the route the traveler, who has studied the life and beliefs of the Kola Sami, it was only a few meters away from the largest clusters in the European North of petroglyphs. Later, in 1925, these tracks are in the Geological Survey Party — while on the Kola Peninsula was an active exploration of mineral deposits. Geologists have made the first description of rocks, which are composed of rocks found in the area Kanozero pegmatite veins with amazonite. By the way, on a rocky island nose Burnt they left the so-called visitors' label, which is a letter "E.E.B. PIB "and underneath" 1925 July 1925 June (s) zdse. " But then, the petroglyphs themselves and did not notice!
Apparently, they are destined to be detected only in the late twentieth century, in 1997, members of the historical alloy, which gave the world a new "deposit" petroglyphs. After Kanozero petroglyphs — the third in a row and the largest today — more than 900 images — congestion on the Kola Peninsula. The first was found in the tract Chalmny Varre Ponoy the river in 1973 (nine stones with petroglyphs are still in place, one taken to the village museum Lovozero). Ocher painting, called petroglyphs, — on the peninsula to fish in 1985. Paintings and engravings on the steep rocky outcrop protruding blocks the river Päivi called "Gallery".
— Whom fate kissed benevolent, revealing secret epistolary treasure?
— In the 97th Revda Museum organized an expedition — rafting on the river Umba. The boys stopped to rest and wait out the wind on a rocky island, designated for tourist sailing directions as sharp stone. Yuri Ivanov drew attention inscriptions left by his contemporaries. The guy wanted to find the old one. Under the pine needles and various litter suddenly found drawing boat with rowers, next — a deer. First all took this as a joke: so many people have called here! Just in case I photographed. It turned out petroglyphs. Since then, scientific expeditions to Kanozero become regular, member of many of them was me. Stone island, Burnt, Spruce and lonely cliffs are now four main location of local petroglyphs.
— How to think of who these ancient artists who created the rock art thousands of years ago?
— Perhaps the ancient hunters. Discovered in the 97th Kanozero drawings are similar to some images of other large complexes of rock art of the European North. But they removed many hundreds or thousands of miles away! Imagine: the petroglyphs on the river Vig ("demons Sledkov" Zalavruga) in the White Sea and Lake Onega (Devils Nose, Peri Nos), Karelia, Sweden and Norway. Plus numerous petroglyphs in Finland.
All of them, as kanozerskie, often in a smooth surf and ancient glacier rocks and places associated with the fishery. Released their thematic and stylistic affinity, suggesting prolonged direct contact of the ancient population in certain historical periods. This is confirmed by archaeological finds. But in general, indicative of a general outlook of the vast territory of the inhabitants of northern Europe.
— Which subjects are the most common?
— Images of boats, the bow of which is made in the form of a head of elk, "sorcerers" losinogolovymi with batons in hand, scenes of hunting for deer, moose and bear, childbirth, drawings of crosses, traces of human and animals, mythological characters with huge palms, skiers. All these motifs, typical of a hunting tradition existed in the Stone Age of Kanozero to Nemforsena in northern Sweden, on Lake Onega and the White Sea to the coast near Alta in Northern Norway. Perhaps the herds began to move north to the newly opened after the melting of the glacier area. People went after them. In these places, between about 4.5 thousand and four thousand years before Christ there was a surge of rock art.
— Kanozero — this section of the river Umba ozeroobrazny surrounded by swamps. He is not very suitable for life. Why is it here, away from the coast of the peninsula, discovered cave paintings? How and why people got there?
— Now swampy shores Kanozero look uncomfortable. On the lake until no traces of major sites of ancient man. And so far it is not clear whether there were conditions for the existence of the settlements. Probably the people staying there was temporary, and the islands Kanozero with smooth rocks were places of ritual visit.
The alternation of the two topics — forestry, hunting and hunting sea mammals — may also indicate that the local place is a ritual. In addition, Kanozero could well be the place of contact of different cultures, and here in person or in absentia happened, in modern terms, borrowing artistic ideas.
— In more recent times, people still have chosen this place to settle? Something must have attracted them in a harsh land.
— Kanozero first mentioned in chronicles in 1558 as a ground of the village of Umba Dvinsk district. In 1898 lumberman Belyaev plant built near the village. With the development of harvesting began active development of the river Umba. There are settlements, for example, at the source of the river Rodvingi, now this place is called Granny Tuchiha. It is possible that Belyayevskoye workers and founded the settlement at the mouth of the river Podmuna moon. On it now resembles a rusty tow, which once pulled over a lake connected to the purse logs floated down the forest. But life in the village has never waned, until the early 1990s, is operated weather station. Even today Kanozero in favor among fishermen. Now, the village is rybinspektsii item and the new center. This place was once again transport route for water tourists.
By the way, it turned out that the local population in Soviet times was aware of the existence of vybivok on the rocks, but no one gave it much importance. In 1998, we talked with a resident of this place. He said that in 1949, a teenager was staying in the village of woodcutters. The islands Kanozero boys caught perch and showed him the strange drawings on the rocks.
"Vasya was here." This is evident
— Perhaps your expedition in search of petroglyphs were full of adventure and danger?
— Until Kanozero can get both water and on land. The names of local thresholds to reflect their harsh temper, history of the region and the Pomeranian culture — Padun, Rogue, Semiverstny, Karelian. Once at Padun my boat capsized. Fortunately, nothing happened.
Just before falling into the river forms Kanozero long rocky threshold and spreads beautiful delta. Unfortunately, the view of the port traces of tourist trash, cutting, unmade fireplace. In general, people rested on all cylinders, and, of course, left their autographs.
We've raft on rivers Kan and moon — this is the most difficult routes, as the water shallow and littered with fallen trees. And had to get on the causeway across the marsh. Once our rover nearly drowned. In general, the surprises and tests missed. But we had a goal, we hoped for the opening. And hopes come true!
— Ancient inscriptions did not make you think about Hyperborea or aliens?
— No. I believe that the Hyperborean hypothesis, in particular, related to the opening of petroglyphs on the Kola Peninsula, are designed for sensation, there is no scientific justification. For example, geologists drilled about 50 years ago in the rock pits easily interpreted as signs of something else. In short, things quite understandable given the desired shape.
— And as experts to determine the age pattern?
— There are special methods. Authenticity and antiquity of the petroglyphs is determined, for example, the study of lichens growing on it. Lichenology find out: if, for example, lichen, covering the design, over a hundred years — it is certainly not a modern forgery. Cave paintings — an invaluable source of information. It is necessary to study the document, make a copy, which can then be thoroughly studied.
— Your book is no doubt shed light on the ancient history of the page. But if she will not, at the same time guide for tourists to fraud or "black archaeologists"?
— Quite the opposite. One of the challenges we face — to keep these "temples in the open." The more people learn about the historical value of the petroglyphs, the more civilized will behave. Besides, most of the objects already placed under protection, on the same island Stone no parking. Despite the difficult accessibility, ancient drawings Kanozero were very vulnerable. And the main direct human activities are visiting the monument to its tourists and research professionals. I think, "Drawings Kanozero" will contribute to education.
— That revdintsami first steps to museumfication Kanozero petroglyphs. Measures taken for the preservation of pictures enough?
— The first exhibitions, articles in the press, movies on television — all employees created Revdinskogo museum. In 2008, work on the monument museumfication received financial support of the regional government, there were municipal cultural institution — a museum of rock art "Petroglyphs Kanozero." However, despite the measures taken, we must realize that a competent protection of sites with petroglyphs needs a draft prepared by the specialized agencies. Such as the Russian Institute of Cultural and Natural Heritage Likhachev. Incidentally, his experts have already visited Kanozero. One of the steps to create a Museum is to assign petroglyphs status of cultural heritage — the sights of Russia.
Tatjana Popovic, Olenegorsk.
Published: "Murmansk Bulletin" on 12.11.2011