December 1, 2012 20:46
Earth is in danger she faces global warming or an asteroid collision-killer. Caravans spacecraft with humans on board to go and find a spare planet. To save mankind, there is the main question: how to keep your line in zero gravity or in the same spare the planet?
"I think that the selection is small. In fact these planets, which can absorb at least hypothetically, only two. This is Venus and Mars "- said a senior researcher at the State Astronomical Institute of the PK Sternberg (SAI) Vladimir Surdin.
But if the conditions on Mars are more or less suitable for life, on the surface of Venus — the temperature to 500 degrees. You can only live at high altitude or in orbit of Venus … in space.
Address the issues of reproduction in space began with the flora. Half a century ago, conducted experiments on plants. Four generations of peas grown in orbit were no different from the terrestrial species. Then — the injection into orbit insects, tiny fruit flies Drosophila. In 1979 he was sent into space quail eggs, to check how the embryo develops in weightlessness.
"We get absolutely normal chick. But then the problems begin. It is related to the fact that this chick should find support, it must stand on its feet and start moving, "- says the head of the Laboratory of the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) RAS Vladimir Sychev. Finding no support, chicks randomly tumbling. And after 10 hours in newborns there is a complete atrophy of the instincts. The chicks did not respond to light and sound.
"The trouble was that after four days they just died. Twice we hatching, then — refused, because it is just impossible to work with them, "- says the failure of the experiment with chicks in space, Vladimir Sychev.
With animals last biological "minikovcheg" flew into orbit 16 years ago. In the spring of 2013 to continue the experiments. However, in biosatellites "Bion" will only individuals of the same sex.
"It was an experiment with rats that were sent into space with the fruit. In principle, there is not found anything supernatural. It was just on biosatellites, but again — it is a single experiment, and such studies should be carried out ", — said Vladimir Sychev.
After landing, the space of rats appeared offspring. But to approach the problem directly in the space of reproduction has not yet obtained. Challenge.
Animals, losing their familiar surroundings, simply can not realize their sexual instinct. Man, however, in contrast to small animals, in principle, can.
Homo sapiens have the abstract thinking and are able to create a fitting emotional background. For ethical reasons, such experiments are not conducted. But women fly into space for 50 years.
"The biggest risk was in Tereshkova. And the most precious thing a human — is the female body. Our seagull flew away, and no one on Earth could not say whether it will continue after the flight into space, whether it will be able to have a baby after this flight? After all, the question no one answered, "- says a veteran space industry Vakhtang Vachnadze.
In June 1964, just a year after the flight into space, the first woman cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova gave birth to a daughter. The child's father Andrian Nikolayev was also an astronaut. In 1988, a second woman-cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya, down twice in orbit, and even work in space, son. However, the risk remains.
"We have accrued unit astronauts. They have, after long flights all right, growing healthy generation. And if the astronauts will be greater, the risk increases even with orbital flights "- sums up the pilot-cosmonaut, Hero of the Soviet Union, Hero of Russia Valery Polyakov.
Yet humanity must look for some new ways in biotechnology, radiation protection, the creation of artificial gravity.
Hydro CPC — a mandatory stage of preparation for flight. Here in zero buoyancy skills astronauts work out in space. Water simulates weightlessness.
If an adult water, even comfortable, but still — hostile environment, the baby — his element. Small "Ichthyander" seem to confirm — life on the land out of the ocean.
"The Kid is about 9 months in my mother's amniotic fluid, it is easier to get used to some water then. In principle, it makes sense, because from the moment of birth, from the moment of the first bathing is only 2 weeks. This is a very little something to remember, "- says Marina swimming instructor grudnichkovogo Aksenov.
In short, if the unborn child weightlessness — a more natural condition, it is necessary for a woman to gravity, the force of gravity.
"Very quickly, in weightlessness dryahleyut abdominal muscles, pelvic drops ability to expulsion of the fetus. Well, and this is omitted, relying on stimulants labor. You can, of course, in a special chamber to go to give birth. And then what? "- Gives a nontrivial issues Valeri Polyakov.
On the other hand, the child also needs artificial gravity. Not feeling the gravity, the body does not generate the skeleton and muscles. Newborn in orbit is impossible, as an adult, dressed in a suit for a special pull-training.
"He's just going to be deprived of what it will be vital. And this experiment, which we'll go, allowing the birth of a child in an alien environment, will lead to what we bring to Earth a disabled person completely maladjusted "- anticipates head Bioethics IBMP RAS Igor Pestov.
While the birth of children in space — a question of theory. But after a while it will be a reality. Earthlings in their ships go to a distant planet, which will be home to their children, born in space.