By 1938 pyatibashenny heavy tank T-35, did not take the role of time before the hostilities already obsolete. Show by the time the means of defense have called swing the possibility of a successful confrontation with the 37-47 mm caliber guns. Samples strengthen the protection of the T-35 by screening and the introduction of cost-armor led to increased fighting weight and decrease the mobility of the machine and did not provide the desired effect. In this regard, the Supreme Military Council, held in April 1938, which considered the question of the weapon system of the Red Army, it was decided to make a new heavy tank with massive armor and weapons — heavy breakthrough tank, capable of operating in a more heavily fortified areas.
At this time, have been formulated and the tactical and technical requirements (PR) to the tank such type. Work on the new languid machines were deployed in the design offices of 3 factories: the Leningrad Kirov, Leningrad Experienced named after SM Kirov (№ 185), and the Kharkov Locomotive Comintern (№ 183).
The heavy tank developed a new type-based layout scheme languid tank T-35 with a view to strengthening its armor protection, firepower and mobility. In the process of elaboration of the scheme designers have considered different options for the installation of weapons in the 5 and 3 towers. The final decision was made in favor of three-turret design.
In October of 1938 to the State Commission for the prototyping teams design bureau of the Leningrad Kirov's and pilot plants have been presented drawings and models of new languid tanks designed for a TTT. Kirov Plant introduced a heavy breakthrough tank QMS — "Sergei Kirov," and of a pilot plant — a heavy breakthrough tank "Product 100", then called the T-100.
Work on the creation languid breakthrough tank T-100 were launched in the summer of 1938 in the design office of a pilot plant number 185 under the control of SA Ginsburg. The main design work on the newest car were made IS Bushneva, GV Twisted, GN Moskvin, ES Paley and LS Troyanov. Lead engineer on the tank was appointed E.Sh.Paley. Initially, according to the TTT, was developed by the option to install weapons in 3 towers: 76.2 mm tank gun L-10 in the main tower and the 2-45-mm tank gun mod. 1934 2-small towers. But after reviewing the project and the layout of the tank, to a thickness of 60 mm armor vehicle weight does not exceed 55-57 m, from a small tower and refused to follow the work conducted over the two-tower option.
Major works for the manufacture of components, assemblies and assembly of the tank makes the plant number 185, armor — Izhora plant and aggregates box — factory number 183 in Kharkov. Test-drive the car into the yard without an experienced factory installed towers with weapons, the driver's hatch, inspection equipment, means of internal and external communication and parts boeukladki held July 2, 1939 The assembly of the tank detained subcontracting — Factory N 183, which at that time all of their production capacity dropped at the ready reference the most experienced tank A-32.
Final assembly of the car was completed by 31 July 1939 and the T-100 was adopted by the Commission to conduct field tests, which are connected with the factory.
August 1, 1939 T-100 arrived at the landfill, factory tests, which, according to programmke tests approved by Armor Management (AVTU) of the Red Army, were to end in January 3, 1940 but in full this work could not take place because the middle November 1939 the car was removed from the trial and was sent to the impending Karelian Isthmus to the "special test", under which it was assumed to check the combat and running in front properties criteria in the specially formed group of experienced tanks made factories of Leningrad.
The layout of the tank was different from the traditional placement of weapons in the 2-conical towers, arranged one behind the other along the longitudinal axis of the body. The rear radial rotation of the main tower was installed on the highest turret box. In the bow's compartment was located on the axis of the machine mechanic-driver, right — a radio operator. The fighting compartment was in the middle of the hull and included military branch 2-towers.
View the T-100
In the fighting compartment small towers placed gunner (commander of the tower) and charging, fighting compartment in the great tower — a tank commander, gunner and loader. In addition, it was foreseen place for a technician.
The main armament used 76.2-mm gun L-11 (L-10) installed in the main tower with vertical guidance angles from minus 5.5 to plus 26 °, and a small tower of the 45-mm tank gun mod. 1934 with firing angle in the horizontal plane angles of 256 ° and vertical guidance from minus 4.5 to plus 26 °. Rotation mechanism towers were electromechanical and manual transmission. As an additional tank weapons had two DT machine-guns, paired with the guns, and one anti-aircraft machine gun DT with vertical guidance angles from minus 12 to plus 77 °, mounted in a turret radial rotation, placed on the roof of the main tower above the tank commander. To rotate the turret was used a special mechanism to drive a manual handwheel which was set button electric trigger gun. Ammunition of the tank consisted of 120 shots for 76.2-mm gun, 393 rounds of 45-mm guns, placed in special iron three-shot magazines and 4284 rounds of ammunition, packed in 68 machine-gun drives for machine-guns.
Tank Gun L-11 production Kirov factory installed later differed from the L-10 long threaded portion (23.5 calibers instead of 17 in the A-10), as well, for the most original armor-piercing projectile speed (612 m / s instead of 555 m / sec) and more armor penetration (63 mm at a distance of 1500 m at a meeting angle 90 °). Wedge with a hammer mechanism with the DA mode has been replaced with the bolt-type gun mod. 1927 was added to the mechanism of semi-automatic shutdown and modified hoist mechanisms and hand and foot slopes. Range direct fire was 3600 m, and large — 12 000 m Practical rate was 6 — 7 shots per minute.
For aimed fire and battlefield surveillance crew panoramic machines were used and telescopic sights: for a 45-mm cannon — TAP and TOP, for the 76.2-mm cannon — PTC, PT-1 and RTB, for anti-aircraft machine gun — TZP. Apart from this, the towers and the machine body were mirrored vision devices and slit with glass triplex.
The armor protection of the body and 2-towers was protivosnaryadnoy, equiresistant made of armored parts 60 mm wide with optimum angles, connected among themselves by the combined method — Goujon with the following provarkoy seams. To access and exit the crew had access covers — one for each tower and the forward part of the right while the car. Apart from this, in the bottom of the tank was manufactured emergency hatch. For the convenience of the motor and box units in the field tests in the roof of the engine compartment and aft tanks were special hatches closed armored covers.
In the rear of the chassis installed carburetor air four twelve-V-twin engine is liquid cooled GAM-34-W (power 850 hp, 1850 rev / min) and Manual. Starting the engine was carried out by means of compressed air or electronic starter ST-70 15 hp The cooling water radiators engine produced by an axial fan with helical blades mounted horizontally on the box for the type of wheel-track medium tank T-29. The air for the cooling fan motor
sucked through the air duct side pockets, covered with protective netting and placed in the front of the engine compartment. The exhaust hot air released into the rear of the engine compartment on the upper branches caterpillars. As the fuel used aviation gasoline, which was located in Dural 4 fuel tanks with total capacity of 1160 liters. This amount of fuel tank provided in store down the highway at 160 km and 120 km dirt road.
In the five-speed box used three-way box, which provides five forward speeds and one reverse speed, three-disc main clutch dry friction (steel on ferrodo), multiple disc friction clutches of dry friction (steel on steel) with band brakes with a shell of ferrodo and ordinary row final drives. Friction clutches and brakes have pneumatic servo control and backup mechanical privod.Servoupravlenie machine pneumatic type with closed loop operation consisted of a two-cylinder single-stage compressor capacity 105 l / min (1200 rev / min) having a drive from the box, the system tracking acts of pneumatic cylinders, radiators, air cylinders high and low pressure by the servo truboprovodov.Pri rotates and braking machines, allowing to reduce the force on the arm to the pivot small — 10 kg, and the clutch pedal brain — 15 kg, but in case of failure of the control of a tank system was difficult because of the huge effort on the arms (up to 80 kg). In conducting Polygon-production test servo-clutch pedal brain was removed because of a bad operation of the drive.
In the chassis used personal crank-balance-type suspension with leaf springs on 7 road wheels on the side and a buffer on the front leaf spring rink. Suspension components are protected from possible battle damage armor-screen road wheels. The structure consisted of 18 track mover pitched bearing support rollers 10 and the outer shock absorption, the drive wheels with removable gear rings, steering wheels with helical tensioning mechanisms and melkozvenchatye caterpillars lantern meshing of forged iron shoe with an open hinge. The tension of crawler tracks performed from the driver's compartment.
Machine electrical equipment was performed by a single-circuit. System voltage is 12 V and 24 V (starter circuit) was provided by 4 starter battery 6STE-144 connected serially, and the generator constant current output of 2.5 — W kW. The generator was placed on the box and is driven by a gear drive system cooling fan motor.
As a means of communication on the tank was installed radio 71-AS-W umformerami with the PR-750 and the PR-10a. Apart from radio, outdoor communications in a machine-gun turret was installed and warning signal color: pure white, reddish and greenish. Used for internal communication intercom TPU-6.
Fire fighting equipment consisted of a hand-held fire extinguishers with carbon tetrachloride.
The T-100 with a combat weight of 58 tonnes developed the highest road speed 35.7 km / h on the dirt road up to 10.3 km / h and had good permeability characteristics. The car could climbing inclines of up to 42 °, 4 m wide trenches, vertical wall height of 1.3 m, ford deep and 1.25 m and move on slope angle up to 25 °.
At the end of 1939 on the basis of the T-100 was developed self-propelled gun, the T-100Z with more massive armament, engineering tank. In March 1940, were made in the metal-propelled SU-100Y, and for the T-100Z main (rear) tower with a howitzer M-10 152.4-mm caliber. The T-100Z was developed under the control of L. Troyanova, the car was the lead engineer ES Paley.
Engineers tank based on the T-100 was designed to carry out tasks to build bridges, transportation of people and the transport of explosives in special boxes. The following was supposed to use it as a base for the creation of self-propelled artillery. Experienced standard car was not finished, and it made chassis was used in the construction of self-propelled artillery gun SU-100Y.
According to the analysis of the fighting in the war with Finland and the introduction of new languid tanks, spring 1940 design bureau of the plant N 185 on the basis of the T-100 has developed new languid tank — the "article 103" (Lead Project Engineer — Shufrin). The machine is designed to suppress ground fire points and the fight against the enemy fleet. It was a tree layout of the machine, but future work on it was considered inappropriate and discontinued due to the fact that the T-100 was put into service, as the lack of basic chassis.
Battle of application
T-100 crew consisted of soldiers of the 20th heaviest armored brigade commander Lieutenant M. Astakhov, artillery Artamonov, Kozlova, a radio operator Smirnov and workers at their 185 number. Kirov, A. Lyuhina driver, spare driver and minder Drozhzhina V. V. Kaplanova. SMK, T-100 and KB were a company of languid tanks under the command of Captain Kolotushkin. December 10, 1939 company came to the front and was given a 90-Panzer Battalion 20th heaviest armored brigade.
Battle implementation of QMS and T-100 was pretty well described in the book "Design of combat vehicles" (Lenizdat, 1988). Here is what you can find on this: QMS tank was moving at the head of the tank column in this battle (referring to December 18) for a long time was under fire … At the fork Kyamarya? Vyborg driver did not see a pile of boxes and apparently ran over them. A loud roar, brown clouded with smoke all around. Tank braked. Waiting until the smoke clears, Lieutenant Pettine came out of the tank and looked around the damaged car. QMS was at large funnel. Mine explosion here or mortgaged land mine damaged the sloth and the caterpillar, bolts blew off the box. Breaks down electrical equipment. bent the bottom of the machine frame. It was a 40-degree cold, but the snow around the tank explosion almost completely melted …
Two-tower T-100 and KB came up and stood beside. The crew of T-100 were volunteers have run the Leningrad plant most experienced engineering Kirov, and in the midst of their E.Roschin. Looking back on that fight, he said, came to the lame-QMS, our products have covered his own armor. T-100 stood up in front and to the right, and the KB is also in front, but a bit more to the left, so Makarov, a 3-armored vehicles formed a triangular fortress. In this construction, we not only survived a few hours, and tried to put the SMC on the course, connecting the broken track … But the damage was very significant — not counting the caterpillars
View of the front of damaged rollers, and languid with the car seats move failed.
View of the front
Evacuation Force Lieutenant Toropova tried to take out a tank warped QMS, using as a 25-ton truck tank T-28. Worked nights under enemy fire, but take this colossus, firmly entrenched in the funnel, they could not. Warped sloth and broken caterpillar is one hundred percent stripped tank mobility. I had to throw it in the neutral zone.
Indeed, the company languid tanks participated in the attack of the 90th Tank Battalion in the Summa Hottin 17-18 December 1939. During these battles, the tank KB was shot through the barrel guns, and the car was sent for repair. A blown QMS December 19. On this day, the 90th Tank Battalion, 20th Armored Brigade broke through the line of Finnish fortifications. Together with a battalion of the line of fortifications came SMK and T-100, accompanied by five of the T-28. The details of this battle could find in the document sent to the Directorate of the plant number 185 in
the headquarters of the North-Western Front in February 1940. Below is the complete document, preserving the spelling so far:
The representation for the award number 185 factory workers and soldiers of the crew of T-100.
At the beginning of hostilities tank 100 was requested by the command of the Red Army in the army. Voluntarily expressed a desire to join the ranks of the Red Army to serve 100 in combat operations at the front:
— t.Plyuhin driver Athanasios D.;
— spare driver t.Drozhzhin Basil Agapovich;
— minder t.Kaplanov Vladimir Ivanovich.
Marked comrades, together with the tank commander Lieutenant Astakhov Misha Petrovic, gunners tt.Artamonovym, Kozlov and t.Smirnovym radio operator, were enrolled in the crew of 100, and transferred to the company languid tanks of the 90th Tank Battalion, 20th Armored Brigade. During his stay at the front of the crew did not once fought. Special attention should be given a role in combat operations 100 19 December 1939 in the amount groves.
This operation has been undermined by the White Finns and disabled tank QMS. Under artillery and machine gun fire, the White Finns (seven hits in 37 100-mm and 47-mm shells and numerous bullet hit) driver t.Plyuhin, closing his own car lined QMS, after many attempts to take him out of the fight by pulling the T-100, attempts have culminating in the success of slipping due to track T-100 (the presence of rime) Crew undermined QMS has crippled the tank and its units armament.
The crew of the T-100 has developed a hurricane of fire cannons and machine guns, and that gave the opportunity for the eight-man crew of the QMS through emergency hatches (in the bottom of the T-100 and QMS) to move out of the QMS 100. At this time the driver did not stop t.Plyuhin observing the actions of the enemy fire and carried a gun on trying to get closer to the tank Finns.
In this operation, was seriously injured junior commander of a tank crew QMS t.Mogilchenko. After a failed test to pick it up in the 100 through the emergency hatch in the floor (the last sleeves jammed machine gun rounds), vols. Drozhzhin and Kozlov, under fire from the White Finns came out of the T-100 through a small hatch tower and picking up the wounded man, dragged him 100.
In this operation, the entire crew under the command of Lieutenant Astakhov led continuous battle with the enemy for 5 hours. On the same day in the battle of 100 stalled engine. Minder t.Plyuhin rapidly delivered due to lack of (cut thread adjustment sleeve magnetos), cleverly ran to work with one mag (instead of 2-), the engine started and gave the opportunity to continue to do the tank puzzle.
Plyukhin AD Born in 1910, a member of the CPSU (b);
Chestnuts VI Born in 1911, a candidate member of the CPSU (b);
Drozhzhin VA birth in 1907, a candidate member of the CPSU (b).
Reporting on the above, it is to be awarded with orders and medals of the factory workers Plyukhina AD, Kaplanova VI, VA Drozhzhina and military lieutenant Astakhov, artillery Artamonov, Smirnov and radio operator Kozlov.
Director of the factory number 185 Barykov / s /
Party organizer of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) of the plant number 185 Fomin / s /
ABTU military representative at the factory number 185 voeninzhe-ner of the 2nd rank Tsipko / s /
February 10, 1940.
The T-100 engine repair after February 18, 1940 was again sent to the army (perhaps E.Roschin that was included in the crew specifically at the time). The machine is operated with tanks KB of 20-th (from February 22 to March 1) and 1st (11 — 13 March) armored brigades. During this time the car was 155 km and was hit by shells 14 anti-tank guns (left side — 6, the mask is a 45-mm cannon — 1 large niche towers — 3, left track — 3, left sloth — 1). In all cases, the armor was not penetrated. After the war, the T-100 arrived at the factory, where was the replacement of the engine and easy repair of the tank. Total by April 1, T-100 was 1745 km, 315 km of them during the fighting on the Karelian Isthmus.
The base served as a T-100 for the development of several military vehicles made the experience of fighting in Finland. From the outset of the Soviet-Finnish war Reddish Army keenly felt the need for a special armored engineering vehicles. Since the middle of December 1939 the Military Council of the North-Western Front, ordered the plant number 185 engineering design and make reservations protivosnaryadnogo tank based on the T-100. This machine designed to perform tasks on a tip from a bridge, transportation engineers and explosives, and the evacuation of warped tanks. But in the process of designing Bureau of Plant received from the chief of the Red Army ABTU D.Pavlova job setting 152-mm gun or other suitable source with bolshennymi speeds at the base of T-100 to control bunker. In this regard, the director of the plant number 185 N.Barykov appealed to the Military Council of the North-Western Front for rescission of the solutions for the manufacture of tanks and engineering judgment to install a car 100 130-mm naval gun. The request was granted, and has 8 January 1940 drawings Corps T-100-X (X) — a designation received a car, were transferred to the Izhorskij plant.
T-100-X differed from the T-100 instead of installing towers cutting konusnovidnoy shape with 130-mm naval gun B-13. Suspension torsion machine was designed and commissioned her the ready Kirov factory with experience in this area. In the production process bronedetaley to speed cutting machine assembly form has been changed to a more ordinary. Brand new self-propelled unit has received the T-100-Y (Y-). The hulls of T-100-I did to Izhorskogo plant on February 24, March 1, began assembling cars, and finished on March 14 self-propelled gun did own the first exit.
But the war had already ended, and experience the T-100-Y in a combat situation to succeed.
During the Russo-Finnish War, an attempt was made to upgrade weapons and T-100. In January 1940, the Deputy People's Commissar of Defense commander of the 1st rank G.Kulik gave instruction to strengthen the arms of T-100 is attached to it 152-mm Howitzer M-10 to fight the dragon's teeth.
By mid-March 1940 was made by newcomer tower with a 152-mm howitzer M-10. It was supposed to install instead available at the T-100 tower 7b-mm cannon A-11. A machine with 152-mm gun system received index T-100-Z (Z). But the brand new tower has not been installed on the tank due to the adoption on arms KB-1 and KV-2, ABTU Red Army completed all the work on the improvement of the upcoming T-100.
It is interesting to quote from the report on field testing of tanks SMK and T-100, compiled by a commission under the chairmanship of P.Voroshilova. At the same time, these reports dated February 22, 1940: at the time of the QMS was standing on the field of battle, and T-100 departed again to the front.
The report of the T-100 was observed that the cooling system is not worked out, while driving through the forest grid hammered leaves, the fan is not reliable. Need to modify the governance arrangements for gearboxes, steering clutch design to revise the gain. As indicated the presence of the dignity of the pneumatic control system tank. In the report stated that the T-100 corresponds to the TTC. Advise for putting the Red Army is impractical because the tank is made and accepted by KB.
But representatives of the plant number 185, Barykov director and chief engineer Gidkov, expressed particular worldview, which consisted of the following:
Adoption of t
he Commission that the T-100 is impractical to advise adopting solutions in the presence of acceptance KB is wrong, because two-tower T-100 is a machine of another class compared with HF. The assertion that the best performance characteristics KB has not substantially correspond to reality: armament 45 mm and 7b mm or 45 mm and 152 mm from the T-100 and KB 7b mm or 152 mm, patency at The supplies of power.
Because the plant is fully considers it necessary recommendation to the adoption of the T-100 into service even in the presence of HF. In addition, because of their dimensions in T-100 You can install the 130-mm naval gun, which can be done by KB. But no decision on this special beliefs were taken.
The upcoming fate recent Russian tanks towered developed differently. QMS has been delivered to the Kirov Plant. By order of the ABTU Red Army during the 1940 plant had to repair the tank and transfer it to the landfill for storage in Kubinka. But for unknown reasons before the Russian war majestically repairs had not been made, and after the war went to SMK melted.
The T-100 in the summer of 1940 was transferred for storage to Kubinka, and after the Russian war majestically evacuated to Kazan, and then in Chelyabinsk. Then the car was handed over to the most experienced factory number 100, where it stayed until the end of the war. The upcoming fate machines are not installed, but according to some reports, up to the mid-50s she was on the ground Chelyabinsk Tank School.
|The performance harakteristikityazhelogo pilot of the T-100|
|Year of manufacture||1939|
|Ground clearance, m||0,525|
|Shoe width, m||0.7|
|The armor protection, mm||Forehead case 60 mm
Board case 60 mm
60 mm feed
The roof is 20 mm
The bottom 20-30 mm
|Armament||76.2 mm gun (L-10) L-11
45-mm gun model. 1934-38 years.
3 x 7.62 mm DT machine-guns.
|Ammunition|| 200 shots
|Means of communication
— peripheral tie
12-cylinder, 850 hp
|Fuel tank capacity, l||1160|
|The average specific
|The stores range, km||on the highway — 160
on the ground — 120
|Max. speed, km / h||35.7|
Self-propelled unit T-100-U was also transmitted to Kubinka summer of 1940. Since the beginning of the war ACS will not evacuated. In November 1941, T-100-Y, together with the 152-mm opytneyshemi SPG SU-14 and SU-14-1, was a part of the self-propelled artillery battalion special purpose. But information about the military use of the T-100-U has been found.
T-100-Y is preserved to this day and is located at the Military History Museum of armored vehicles in Kubinka.