Icebreaker coming LK-60YA. The outlines of Guiding Light in the Arctic are becoming clearer


As of November CDB "Iceberg" (St. Petersburg) is finalizing a draft dvuhosadochnogo icebreaker project 22220 60 MW, better known as male-60YA. As the IAA "IAA" Deputy General Director of Fleet Operations "Atomflot" (run by the enterprise are all Russian nuclear-powered icebreakers) Andrei Smirnov, the icebreaker will replace obsolete by a number of parameters such as icebreakers "Arktika", which are also, for the reasons of expiry, will soon be disposed of.

The new icebreaker will have a longer life (up to 40), the best ice-covered (3 m vs. 2.5 on older ships), and have a variable draft. The latter property allows it to operate in different environments — both on the Northern Sea Route and in estuarine areas.

Currently icebreakers separated by shallow-draft and large and does not have the versatility. What was the path to the vision icebreaker pr.22220 and what technical specifications engineers managed to solve the "iceberg"?

The new format.

First, from the perspective of the development of the transport fleet and the organization year-round transportation necessary to increase the size of AL over the nuclear-powered icebreaker "Arktika": for posting the large vessels of the "Northern Sea Route". For ships of this size requires a wide channel. A previous generation of icebreakers also felt nonoptimality relationship between power and displacement. For his power, he was too light, negatively manifested itself in heavy ice, as they crossed the blows of jumpers, ridges and other accumulations in the way of an icebreaker. Skippers could use these icebreakers at full capacity. Were forced by working raids, reduce the power not to "pop up" on the ice, not the wedge. Weight icebreaker for heavy duty was not sufficient.

An unpleasant incident occurred with the icebreaker "Siberia", which received a dangerous turn, stumbled on a multi-year ice floe at Cutting through the ice bridge. Faced with an intractable obstacle icebreaker crept up and started to list up to 20 degrees. To work more effectively icebreaker is clearly not enough mass, kinetic energy. Based on the experience already operating in the late 1970s — early 1980s. came to the conclusion that this class icebreaker should increase slightly, to increase its ice-covered. Icebreaker hull lines virtually repeated contours icebreaker "Moscow" Finnish designers who also have not yet had their own operating experience.
As a result of further work have come to realize that by optimizing the hull form can significantly increase the ice-covered ice-breaker without a significant increase in capacity. Model tests were conducted at the Arctic Institute and Finnish colleagues CDB. Found that only by improving the contours of the form can be provided is the same as in the ice-covered polutorokratnom increase in capacity, that is ensured by its 50% savings. In parallel, studied the options offered by foreign shipbuilders. Conducted field tests of diesel icebreaker "Kapitan Sorokin," and "Captain Nikolaev" (after conversion of the Germans and Finns). We studied various forms of contours: cylindrical, conical (spoon-shaped) — Proposed Finnish shipbuilders and ledoreznoy pontonoobraznye — proposed by the German company. From the viewpoint of ice-covered (increase it in 1.5) they are very promising, in particular for use in flat ice, but good qualities ice breakers must have satisfactory seaworthy, given the need for long transition seas around a Scandinavian peninsula in the west, and the transition from Vladivostok to the Arctic, the use of icebreakers for towing large structures or vessels during the summer season. It is therefore necessary to take care of seaworthiness and icebreakers.

German and Finnish versions have shown that we should not get carried away with exotic contours, because they do not allow for versatility, the normal operation of the marine environment.

"Captain Nikolaev" (with spoon-shaped nose) as we go around Scandinavia caught in a heavy storm and got a very severe damage and cracks in the hull, up to a leakage in the engine room. As a result of slamming flew off all equipment in the cabins. These were powerful blows. Converted "Captain Sorokin '(with pontonoobraznym nose) also experienced strong blows on a rampage. In addition, the actual ice qualities he was malomanevrennym. The thick fast ice, he carved out a nice smooth channel, worked really efficiently. And in the old clogged channel, hummocky ice, he was already working as a bulldozer, pushing the ice in front of him.

The efforts of "iceberg" focused mainly on working out universal contours — traditional wedge. This form allows you to improve the contours while maintaining satisfactory seaworthiness.

Kruglogotichnaya operation and new dimensions

Our most powerful icebreakers of the "Arctic" may provide navigation through the NSR in the Eastern region only for 7 months. To ensure reliable year-round work to improve the ice-covered. In particular, we walk ledopro-powered icebreaker — the leader for year-round swimming all over the Northern Sea Route should be about 3.5 meters under the ice-covered refers to the maximum thickness of the smooth solid ice, surmounted by an icebreaker continuous progress with a minimum sustained speed of 2 knots. But while from the perspective of transportation needs in such a heavy-duty icebreaker not. Now for reliable operation in the Kara Sea to the ice-covered Dudinki enough to provide 2.6 m Therefore, the first requirement for a new icebreaker — increasing ice-covered with a 2.3 m (as in "Arctic") to 2.6 m

Recently started to change the composition of the transport fleet. With the development of offshore oil and gas fields require large tankers for export of hydrocarbon raw materials for export. Large-capacity shuttles, which are being built for the Pechora Sea (for Prirazlomnoe for Varandey) 70 tonnes deadweight have a width of 34-36 meters, the courts of one hundred thousandth the width of deadweight and even more — 42-44 m Here with such broad and heavy vessels must deal with and run them under the appropriate channel width. Its size is determined by the rate of pilotage.

The dependence of the rate of posting on the width of the vessel was defined as an icebreaker on the basis of experience of the icebreaker fleet, and specially of the tests. In 2002, as part of the project "Sakhalin-1" has been carried out large-scale experimental wiring 100000th tanker "Primorye" two icebreakers — linear icebreaker "Krasin" capacity of 26.5 MW on the shafts and support "Magadan" 7 MW. With one icebreaker bandwidth is insufficient, and the tanker have myself dolamyvali edge of the ice after the ice-breaker. Unacceptably low speed and also unstable. For the economy pilotage channel width is very important.

Another important point is the power of an icebreaker. On the one hand, can improve the contours. Ice-breaking capability within 2.7-2.8 m can be obtained by improving the shape contours. Last nuclear icebreaker "50 Years of Victory" has improved on the proposal CNIIMF contours of the nasal tip. They are not quite the same as expected for a new project, but a lot has already been done. The slope of the stem is already 21 degrees instead of the previous 27, opened the waterline from 28 to 35 degrees. Bigger busted ribs. These improvem
ents, retaining wedge-shaped profile, allowed to save up to 50% of the power and reach 2.6-2.7 m ice-covered. In the Central Research Institute. Krylov was carried out comparative model tests, which confirmed the expected benefits of advanced hull forms proposed CNIIMF.

In the future, to secure the posting of large vessels icebreaker should have a supply of power.

Icebreaker for the river and the sea

3D model icebreaker project studios 22220 "Solid"

Studies and experiments have shown that, as already mentioned, the icebreaker class "Arctic" must be increased in terms of dimensions, i.e. width and length. But then the nuclear-powered icebreaker, which is not required fuel reserves, is beginning to emerge. Suitable broadening from 28 to 33 m can provide icebreaker ascent to 2 meters and it will have a draft of ballastless within 8.5 m This is enough to call in Dudinka Ob Bay, where the maximum draft of 9m. We Kharasavey (Yamal Peninsula) will be able to approach the fast ice.

In order to increase the mass of the AL and profoundly put the screws for heavy ice conditions, the sea routes, you need to take liquid ballast. To increase the rainfall by 2 m takes about 8-9 tons of ballast. With the adoption of ballast AL can effectively use its power and inertia. Ballast in the icebreaker "Arktika" is about 2 tons. For the 9000th ballast is necessary to create a special ballast system.

Thus, the situation with the ascent icebreaker prompted to think about creation of the AL with two sediments. In ballastless version icebreaker can go into shallow water, carrying out pilotage directly to Dudinka. That is, the new icebreaker will be able to replace the existing two types of ships: class icebreaker "Arktika" and Class "Taimyr".

Ice-breaking capability of the proposed dvuhosadochnogo icebreaker should be about 2.8-2.9 m, taking into account the need to work with large vessels. With the use of advanced hull form on the shafts enough to have a power of 60 MW. The "Arctic" is equal to 49 MW. Icebreaker new generation to justify the received call number LC-60YA.

There have been studies of processes of cavitation and aeration of the screws in the Central Research Institute. Krylov, who showed that with small draft can be recycled 80% of installed capacity, 48 MW. This confirmed earlier estimates made CNIIMF. With such power be ice-covered 2.5-2.6 m compared to 2 m at the "Taimyr", ie a new icebreaker will be more effective in a limited sediment.

The calculations showed that for the future traffic in the Kara Sea instead of the five traditional icebreakers (3 of "Arctic" and Type 2 "Taimyr") dvuhosadochnyh only three icebreakers, which provides significant gains in the cost of construction. There are a number of other advantages: reduced costs of repair facilities, minimizing downtime on sites docking of two types of ice-breakers in the transition of sea-river through wiring through one type of icebreaker.

We dvuhosadochnogo icebreaker has another advantage: maneuvering ballast, he can "jump" only in some short shallow water, and the rest to work with a maximum draft at full power. In this case, will be provided and a great speed, and a large cross. In addition, a large number of liquid ballast icebreaker will easily be released from jamming when operating in heavy ice of the Arctic seas.
Next generation equipment

The icebreaker new generation will be applied in principle a promising new equipment. First of all, it concerns the main power plant, which consists of two reactor units, steam turbine with two main turbine units, three propulsion motors, working respectively for the three fixed-pitch propellers. Electric propulsion system based on the principle of variable-AC will work under the scheme: synchronous generator — inverter — synchronous motor. As a result, increase efficiency and reduce the mass and dimensions of the installation.

The project is being developed reactor FSUE "OKBM." It will be a progressive type of close coupled nuclear power RHYTHM-200 with a high level of protection. Between congestion at the core of the Republic of Uzbekistan is 7 years as opposed to 2.5-3 years for the existing installation KLT-40. The new setup gives almost double the gain in size and weight. The latter is of great importance to ensure minimum operating draft icebreaker. NEI monoblock type with greater (60%) natural circulation will require much less power pumps. The level of protection and the capacity factor (0,75). Close-coupled, natural circulation, air cooling — all of these factors are involved in the new facility, increase the safety of its operation. Turbine-generator unit will produce OAO "Kaluga Turbine Plant". Similar setup factory makes for a floating nuclear power plant.

More information about the "hot heart" for cold latitudes

Reactor system for a new generation of nuclear-powered icebreaker engineers designed the "Experimental Design Bureau of Machine name I.I.Afrikantova." Lasted several years working on the project. She is now nearing completion.


Alexei Pakhomov, chief of the department of design and layout of reactor installations for nuclear ships, surface ships and nuclear power stations of "Experimental Design Bureau of Machine name I.I.Afrikantova", said: "The universal icebreaker will conduct convoys along the Northern Sea Route, punching ice up to 2.5 meters thick, and go into the mouth of the rivers that require less rainfall. "

One universal icebreaker will work "for two", which will save a tremendous amount on the construction of the second ship. Another important advantage of the "Rhythm 200": security. The reactor is enclosed within a protective sheath made of steel, concrete and water. However, to calculate the consequences of emergencies, engineers are still required, and this helps them supercomputer.

Michael Bolshuhin, head of the department of scientific and technical feasibility of projects of "Experimental Design Bureau of Machine name I.I.Afrikantova," says: "The use of a supercomputer eliminates the costly experiments and reduce the time and cost of the projects."

The computer program simulates the abnormal situation in the reactor facility icebreaker. However, while the super-computer can play back only the most reliable processes are verified by testing. Super-computers will be able to predict the next generation is almost all negative phenomena in the reactor up to accidents such as the tragedy at the "Fukushima-1" in Japan.

Reactor plant "Rhythm 200" — the result of five years of work by employees of "Experimental Design Bureau of Machine name I.I.Afrikantova." The following year, large-scale project goes into production. Launching the first universal icebreaker reactor plants of the last generation is planned for 2016.

About the money

For a project to build a ne
w generation of nuclear-powered icebreaker in the budget of the Russian Federation for the next 3 years laid 20 billion rubles. As the correspondent of IAA "IAA", this at the 2nd International Arctic Forum "The Arctic — Territory of Dialogue" said Minister of Transport of the Russian Federation Igor Levitin.

Recall that in Russia in the near future to build a nuclear-powered and four diesel-electric icebreaker. As previously reported, the question of placing an order for the construction of icebreakers can be made in October 2011. It is assumed that either will be a competition for the construction of icebreakers, or will the disposal of the President of the Russian Federation on the appointment of the Executive Order, which is scheduled to become JSC "United Shipbuilding Corporation" (USC). Note Russian nuclear icebreakers are operated by "Atomflot" State Corporation "Rosatom".

The word Glaucon

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