Labour migration in the life of Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan

In November, a global body of published data on the share of remittances of migrant workers in the gross domestic product in developing countries. Turns out, the first in the world for this indicator is Tajikistan, 47% of GDP which is provided by transfers of migrant workers. In absolute terms, the Tajik labor migrants in 2011 was transferred to the home more than $ 3 billion. U.S. Over time, this figure increases in both absolute and relative terms. For example, in 2008 the volume of remittances from Russia to Tajikistan amounted to 2.5 billion. USD., and its share in GDP — 45%. It turns out that one of the poorest republics of the former Soviet Union can only exist in a symbiotic relationship with the Russian Federation. Full or partial cessation of receipt of remittances from Russia in an overpopulated country unable to feed its population, would lead to economic collapse and social upheaval.

Kyrgyz labor migrants' remittances provide above-quarter GDP (29%) … Out of Central Asia in the last place on the list is Uzbekistan, it is a 10-ke favorites on the ratio of remittances to GDP is absent. Compared with Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan has even more significant territory, population, natural resources, including oil and gas, is also comparable to developed economies. In the pre-crisis period fraction of remittances of migrant workers accounted for about one fifth of its GDP. At the same time, the absolute number of migrant workers employed in Russia confidently Uzbekistan in Central Asia occupies the first place.

To work in the Russian radical population Central Asia is not going to a good life. And it's not just the fact that wages in the countries of this region is much lower than in Russia. In the conditions of the land of overpopulation and lack of land and water resources to feed its population of Central Asia simply can not. In recent years, the lack of land and water and food resources exacerbated by a progressive increase in prices. According disk imaging web site "Ferghana.ru reported," in the July-September this year, the average increase in retail prices of flour in the countryside Kyrgyzstan was 47%, and in towns — 36%. Provide themselves with grain Republic this year was able to only 40%. But if in the past year, Kyrgyzstan has purchased it in Kazakhstan $ 150 per ton, but this year — at $ 340 With all this flour — the staple food of poor families, who make up a large part of the population of Kyrgyzstan. In remote regions, such as the Naryn region, people often live in poverty, with no regular work, but due to the climatic conditions — and the ability to provide family food at the expense of private farming.

Labour market conditions in Russia more presentable for migrant workers than at home. The average salary in Kyrgyzstan is about 140 USD., while in the Russian-Kyrgyz unskilled workers can earn 300-400 dollars, and qualified — to one thousand dollars per month. The outflow of labor migrants in Russia, most of which (70-80%) of young people, has led to a shortage of trained personnel in Kyrgyzstan itself. The country does not have enough professionals in the printing, construction, garment industries and in information technology. Internal socio-economic objectives of Kyrgyzstan, creating higher tensions on the labor market, almost all are solved by labor exports to the Russian Federation, and the criteria for the configuration of this situation, it is not visible. Except Russia agreement on the legal labor movement in Kyrgyzstan only with South Korea. The flow of migrants to other countries is small and is illegal.

A similar situation in Tajikistan. Yearly growth of the labor force in the country is about 100 thousand people. Working abroad are about a million people of the Republic, while 97% of them work in the Russian Federation. According to the International Organization of Labor, three quarters of Tajik migrants work in construction, more than 100 thousand — in industry and agriculture, with about 70 thousand — in the sphere of trade and almost as much in housing and communal services. About half of all workers have no specialty, despite the fact that 11% have a college education. Samples diversify this migratory flow of success so far had not.

In 2009, the Tajik authorities have been negotiating about the organization labor travel to Saudi Arabia, but the kingdom has agreed to take only 20 thousand people. With all of this to the migrant workers there is more stringent than in Russia: they must have the basics of the Arabic language and the right for the job market specialty. According to experts, the negative impact on labor migration to Saudi Arabia may also have differences in the ethnic composition of the population, cultural and religious stereotypes. In contrast to the Russian Federation in the Saudi kingdom is not of Tajik communities, people are not brought up in a single work culture as it was in the Soviet Union, and which is the state religion Islam belongs to the Hanbali, not vserasprostranennomu in Central Asia Hanafi direction. In addition, the Tajik authorities have asked the price for the labor market in Eastern Europe. But there, too, there is a language barrier and qualifications, not allowing to calculate the total verbovanie migrant workers.

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