Languid twin-engine fighter Messerschmitt Bf.210 and Bf.410

According to the memoirs of former senior officers of the Luftwaffe, the idea of multi-purpose production aircraft belonged to Hermann Goering personally, which was conceived on the development of elite squadrons of armed fighters languishing. With all of this data can be applied to memoirs and critically, because Goering could just write off a failed concept. The very idea of multi-role aircraft was not so much the extraordinary, such cars were produced in the UK — Blenheim, France Potez-63 and even in Poland, PZL-38. In Germany, the first aircraft under the concept has become a heavy twin-engine fighter Messerschmitt Bf.110 and its improved versions Bf.210 and Bf.410.

German multi-purpose aircraft was due to meet the accepted concept of blitzkrieg. He had to possess the ability to support the troops who had gone into the deepest breakthrough, to support and maritime operations German Navy. Over time, only the expanded responsibilities of the aircraft. With the introduction of minor alterations plane had to be used as a heavy fighter, night fighter, distant grave fighter support, scout, attack, high-speed bomber, dive bomber, torpedo bomber also. It was planned that in 6000 the Luftwaffe fighters actually half will be in the multi-purpose machine.

Among the proposed design, the Germans halted their own choices on the twin-engine fighter Messerschmitt Bf-110, the creation of which began before the start of the second world war. Taking the plane into service, the command of the Luftwaffe almost immediately reflect on the creation of the next generation fighter languid. The September campaign against Poland in 1939 clearly showed that the Bf-110 has certain advantages as well as severe shortcomings. So he had a limited bomb loads and the radius of the missing action. Another drawback was the missing fighter maneuverability. The plane, which had to cross out shortcomings of the fighter was to become Messerschmitt Bf.210.

Messerschmitt Bf.210

Despite the fact that the first Bf.210 flew in September 1939, work on creating and finishing machines to the brain were very slowly, despite Huge efforts being made by Messerschmitt design bureau. In the end, the plane, which was fixed for the notoriety, it was decided to remove the assembly flow. Total Germans gathered 90 of these aircraft has 267 pieces were collected in Hungary. All planes in the main used in the Mediterranean theater of operations: in Tunisia and Sardinia.

Completely turn away from the idea of multipurpose fighter in the Luftwaffe did not and, using a production by Bf.210 Messerschmitt began work on a version Bf.410 received the designation Hornisse (Hornet). This solution allowed to use pre-made parts, tooling and parts, which have been prepared for version Bf.210. In addition such an approach facilitates the development of modern machinery flight crews. First Messerschmidt Bf.410 took off after 9 months after the decision was made to discontinue the previous version. Messerschmitt Bf.410 literally was a remake of the production aircraft Bf.210. Its design was changed mid-section fuselage and its length, have brought significant changes in the structure of the wing, was provided for the forced installation of new 12-cylinder engines DB-603A-1, has an output of 1850 hp Create aircraft launched in December 1942 in Germany at the company "Messerschmitt", also in Hungary on the Danube aircraft plant. By the end of the war it produced about 1200 data languid twin-engine fighters.

The main difference Bf.410 Messerschmitt 210 version is more massive engines DB-603A-1, who developed high power at an altitude of 2700 meters. In addition to 5 degrees was reduced sweep of the front edge of the wings, there slats. Aerodynamics has been improved by the configuration of radiators and improve the shape of the flaps. Finally managed to achieve what has been in for several years sought to developers. New plane According to their flight finally eclipsed its predecessor Bf.110. Almost all through the installation of more advanced and robust engines. Internal bomb on "Hornet" allowed him to maintain great speed comparing 100 "one hundred and tenth," which was used in the 1942-1943 year at the front is just as high-speed bomber.

Messerschmitt Bf.410

Options fighter Bf.410A-1 and A-2 in almost all repeated each other. Both aircraft were carrying weapons monotonous it offers two 20-mm cannon and two MG 151/20E MG17 machine gun rifle caliber 7.92 mm, which are aggressively fixed in the forward fuselage. Also in special rotating turret FDL or FDSL were installed in one 13-mm gun MG131. On the inside of the suspension plane could carry up to 1000 kg. bombs, one 1,000-pound, two 500-kg, or 8 50-kg bombs. While a load of 500 kg. already was listed as "overweight." In addition to this version Bf.410A-1, which have been adapted for dive-bomber, equipped with a special eye Stuvi 5B, as external release gear for 4-50-lbs. bombs. In addition to the base model A-1 were performed and highly specialized aircraft such Me-410A-1/U1 — scout, who was equipped with a different set of cameras. Also carried out grievous Me-410A-1/U2 fighter, which equipped with a drum weapons bay for the 2nd gun MG 151/20E (with ammunition, 250 rounds per gun). This container can be fixed over bombolyuka.

Until the end of 1943 at a factory in Augsburg were able to build about 457 aircraft in version Messerschmitt Bf.410A. In December, he arranged production aircraft Dornier Werke factory in Oberpfaffenhofen. In February 1944 he went to his capacity. By this time, many of the Me-210 was also converted to the standard Me-410. At this time, there was a thought newest aircraft armament gun mount BK 5 50 mm caliber, which was listed as very reasonably effective weapon in the fight against the Allied Bomber. Shooting with the introduction of the massive guns have ended quite successfully.

Model airplane with a 50-mm gun were designated Bf.410V2. Test it in the fighting ended successfully, then a final decision on the construction of 100 aircraft, armed with guns and filled with 5 VC sights ZFR 4a. This modification was named Me-410A-1/U4. At this time, the standard Me-410A-1, which it was hard to adjust to the role of Scouting, has undergone a series of configurations. At its base was made plane Bf.410A-3, in which the entire intelligence apparatus was located in the front part of the fuselage, where previously removed for offensive weapons the aircraft. Also in April 1944 Messerschmitt aircraft Bf.410 began to be equipped with new more advanced engines DB 603 S, which had over-compression and could work some time in the forced mode with a capacity of 1900 hp at 2700 rpm. moment.

Messerschmitt Bf.410A-1/U4 c 50-mm cannon

Airplanes of the Bf.410V-1 and B-2 bombers were high and weary fighter, respectively. They are manufactured in various versions. So on aircraft series Bf.410V-2/U2 standard armament was replaced by two 30mm MK 103 cannon, while additional weapons is a massive 50-mm gun VC 5. Also along with that came the work on the production machine, armed with exchangeable weapon system Rustsatz, and other modern 37-mm cannon VC 3.7, which, as its 50mm counterpart, was created to combat the Allied bombers. Several aircraft, armed with such guns were even able to pass the tests in combat units.

On some machines the Germans tried to mount the launchers to start the 210-mm rocket
s Wurf Granat 210. So on the plane version Bf.410A-1 has been set 6-tube launcher for launching missiles of that type. As tests have shown, the simultaneous launch of 6 missiles could seriously destroy the plane. Despite this, the work in this direction continued, and after numerous tests the designers managed to achieve comparable benign launch missiles in the air. With all of this without looking at all the initial successes, the work on the upcoming improvement, as well as the production of these aircraft were phased out by September 1944. Messerschmitt Bf.410 was not agile, in order to avoid attacks by American fighters "Mustang", which began to accompany Allied bombers. In addition to the Germany programm «Jagernotprogramm» (programm rapid release a cheap fighters) put an end to all twin-engined cars in its class.

The performance properties of the Messerschmitt Bf.410A2

Dimensions: Wingspan — 16.35 m Length — 12.48 m, height — 4.28 m
Wing Area — 36.2 square meters. m
Aircraft weight, kg.
— Empty — 7518
— normal take-off — 9165
— maximum take-off — 10 650
Motor type — two 12-cylinder engine Daimler-Benz DB 603A liquid cooling, power 1850 hp each
The highest speed — 620 km / h
Combat radius — 2300 km.
Service ceiling — 10,000 m
Crew — 2 persons (pilot and gunner)
Armament gunnery: 2 × 20 mm gun MG-151, 2 × 13 mm machine gun MG-131 2 × 7,92 mm MG-17 machine gun.
Combat load of 1,000 kg.

Sources used:
www.airwar.ru/enc/fww2/me210.html
www.airwar.ru/enc/fww2/me410.html
www.airpages.ru/lw/me410.shtml

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