Photo: Radio-materials developed in the Central Bureau of RM
OAO "Central Design Bureau spetsradiomaterialov" (CDB PM) is one of the oldest enterprises of the military-industrial complex in radiomaterialovedeniya. Experts organizations develop, produce and deliver a unique range of the Ministry of Defence radar absorbing materials (RPM) and absorbers of electromagnetic waves (SEW), including on the basis of modern nanomaterials.
Here are some examples of the application of nanotechnology to the SEW in various fields:
— Masking of military equipment from the radar;
— The protection of information, ie prevention of unauthorized removal of the electromagnetic channel;
— Solving the problems of electromagnetic compatibility of electronic equipment;
— Solving the problems of biomedical Electromagnetic Safety (protection against the harmful effects of spurious electronic devices).
Since the inception of the CDB PM scientists and specialists of the company was completed about 800 research, development and technological works, created more than 300 new materials world of novelty (the characteristics of some of them and now are second to none).
Over the past 4 years received more than 20 patents of the Russian Federation for inventions and utility models: absorbers of electromagnetic waves, multi-coverings, the means of protection against electromagnetic radiation, protective masking device simulator radar targets.
Now developed individual multi camouflage coatings for various types of military equipment made to supply the Defense Ministry and is now exercised by the serial deliveries of the increased volume.
In 2007 was held for the benefit of R &D to create Grau radiorasseivayuschego material for camouflage suit, which successfully passed the state tests.
In 2009 was successfully carried out R &D to create the costume operator lock radio-controlled explosive devices. The presence of a nanostructured ferromagnetic microwire in the suit fabric provides a reduction of the incident electromagnetic radiation up to 1,000 times.
Currently under development shielding materials and devices, including to protect against unauthorized access to information on the electromagnetic channel used to protect the window openings of the allocated space.
One of the latest developments of "CDB RM" — protective camouflage screen (ZME). It is designed to hide from enemy reconnaissance and protection of armored vehicles from the modern means of destruction, operating from the upper hemisphere, including the high-precision weapons. ZME protects harbored armored Combined flexible coating on the surface of the ground and in the trenches of the cumulative effect of ammunition with homing missiles, guided and unguided. ZME triggers an instantaneous detonators at safe distances to the protected equipment. Protective masking screen corresponds to the requirements of the technology in the conduct of military operations in various climatic conditions. Currently solved by adopting ZME to supply Sun Defense Ministry.
Disguise radar-absorbing set MRPK-1L
Radio-absorbing materials developed in the Central Bureau of RM, and have a peaceful use. They are made from eco-friendly fabrics screening for medical and biological defense personnel and people working and living in the harmful effects of electromagnetic fields of different frequencies and intensities. The company received orders for sewing clothes, protective curtains, blinds and other garments intended to contain elevated levels of radiation in areas oversaturated electronic devices (microwave laboratory equipment, diagnostic and physiotherapy centers, computer clubs, media outlets, windows of buildings near the base stations cellular, etc.). The exhibition ROSNANOTECH 2010 caused huge interest covers for mobile phones, aprons for the computer for children and pregnant women, protective cases for laptops.
Radiobiozaschitny suit for operators of microwave devices
At OAO "CKB RM" actively working to study the possibility of using nanostructured ferromagnetic microwire (NFMP) in various fields of engineering.
NFMP is a thin core made of amorphous metal alloys based on transition metals in the glass insulation. The thickness of the metallic core may vary from 2 to 30 microns, the thickness of insulation glass 5-10 microns on the side.
Electron micrograph of the structure of amorphous ferromagnetic microwire in glass insulation. Stroke length scale in the picture -20 microns.
Technology provides for the simultaneous preparation NFMP metal melting, softening a glass tube surrounding the sample of the metal and quenching the resulting composite at 106 deg / s. The result is a three-layer composite consisting of a metal wire diameter of 1-30 microns nanostructured transition layer thickness of about 5 nm and glass insulation thickness 2-30 microns. Due to the difference in thermal expansion coefficient of glass and metal, as well as the presence of the transition layer of the nanostructured material of the metal core is exposed to huge stress (109 Pa) and has a unique electrophysical characteristics in the microwave range, due to the effect of the natural ferromagnetic resonance in the microwave frequencies.
The scheme for obtaining the microwire in glass insulation. 1 — glass capillary, 2 — metal hinge, 3 — RF inductor, 4 — crystallizer 5 — Stranded, 6 — receiver;
This material has a unique combination of properties, including magnetic, giving the following advantages that hitherto could not be implemented in the same technology:
— Unique weight and size: 1 km NFMP weighs 1 g;
— Inert glass insulation, allowing any combination of filler matrix;
— The possibility of simple technological methods to change the electrical properties of NFMP a wide range (modified chemical composition of the alloy, the diameter of the metal core, the thickness and chemical composition of the glass insulation; ratio of the diameter of the metal core and the thickness of the insulation, etc.);
— The possibility of up to 10 km NFMP in one operation.
Based < strong>NFMP absorbing coating manufactured as, and vice versa directed reflectors. As an example of the first application can result in a camouflage kit MRPK-1L adopted to supply the Defense Ministry in 2006.
Corner reflectors radar signal that is printed with NFMP have the following differences from the known metal corner reflectors:
— Light weight;
— The ability to manage a scatter diagram;
— Production of a translucent version;
— Work in all weather conditions, combined with corrosion resistance;
— Resistance to vibration and wind loads;
— Can be used with standard navigational light signs without significantly increasing the cost.
Furthermore, each segment NFMP length between 2 mm is a kind of magnetic marker. When exposed to a magnetic field, the marker will be abrupt change in its magnetization is fixed simple receiver. The pulse shape is characteristic for each type of NFMP. This makes it possible to create, for example, low-cost and highly reliable system to protect the authenticity of objects. Such objects may be different badges prohibited removal of documents and literature, personal weapons, antiques, etc. The magnetic markers can be discreetly placed on the protected objects. The markers on the basis of stable NFMP found both on metal surfaces as well as for metal screens; resistant to mechanical stress and chemical resistance. This greatly expands the range of application of such markers. Use markers, compiled from various kinds NFMP, allows you to create labels with more extensive than just a "yes-no", "multi-bit" of information — the optical analogue of the bar code.
The company has a pilot plant, which allows a single shift to produce 200 km NFMP ie about 20 million tokens.
Apparatus for casting microwire on an industrial scale. With a cooling rate of one million degrees per second can be prepared nanocrystalline, microcrystalline and amorphous structures.
In the CDB PM underway, and other developments in the field of special materials, among which we can mention:
— De-icing coatings for antenna systems, power lines, etc.;
— Ceramic insulating substrate materials for microwave circuits;
— New technological methods of production of various composite materials both special and general business purposes;
and many others …