In the first days of 1918 Artillery and technical management of the France of old times cuirasses test conducted at the site of Fort de la Peña. Sheltered iron armor fighter shot from a pistol, rifle and machine gun with a fully encouraging fruit. Photo: Army Ordnance Dept
They do not publish the martial thunder, do not shine polished to a mirror finish surface, they are decorated with plumes and embossed coat of arms — and often disguised under jackets in general. But now, without these nondescript-looking armor is simply unimaginable to send fighter in battle or to provide the least security VIP-persons …
Return of breastplates
Results of battle of Inkerman (1854), in which the Russian infantry shot as a target in the dash, and a staggering loss of division Pikketa George (George Edward Pickett, 1825-1875) at the Battle of Gettysburg (Battle of Gettysburg, 1863), almost mowed fire northerners forced military leaders to think not only about changing the classic battle strategy.
Because breast fighter was protected from the deadly metal only a narrow cloth uniform. While the battle represented the exchange of musket volleys with the following melee crusher, it did not cause particular concern. But with the emergence of high-velocity artillery, falling asleep battlefield shrapnel and fragmentation grenades, rapid-fire rifles, machine guns and later, loss Straseni armies grew.
Generals different attitudes to the lives of their own fighter. Someone respected and safeguarded them, someone considered respectable death in battle for real men, for anyone fighters were simply expendable. But they all agreed in the outlook that the extra loss will not allow them to win the battle — and even lead to defeat. Particularly vulnerable are the men going to attack infantry battalions and operating at the forefront of demining companies — which concentrated the enemy and its basic fire. Because there was a thought and find a way to protect them even.
First on the battlefield tried to return an old reliable shield. In 1886 in Russia have been tested iron shields design of Colonel Fisher, with special windows for shooting. How unfortunate it did not sound very thin, they were ineffective — as simply sweep of the new rifles. And the Japanese, who used at the siege of Port Arthur iron shields made in England, there was another hitch. Having the dimensions of 1 m by 0.5 m, and thick enough, these boards weighed 20 kg — so run with them into the attack was simply unrealistic. Then came the idea to put these languid billboards on wheels, which was transformed to create boxes, armored trucks — climbing into the which, Footman was moving, pushing down. It was clever, but not very useful design, such as pushing a cart was only possible before the first obstacle.
"Harvest of Death". One of the most recognizable image of South American photographer Timothy O'Sullivan (Timothy O'Sullivan, 1840-1882), made it a day of the Battle of Gettysburg. Photo: Timothy H. O'Sullivan from the archives of the Library of Congress
Was another promising project — a return to the use of breastplate (carapace). Fortunately, the idea was right in front of our eyes, since the turn of the XIX-XX centuries, it was still part of the ceremonial uniform, cuirassier regiments. It turned out that even the usual Breastplate of an old standard (used for protection against cool guns) from a distance of a couple of dozen meters can withstand a 7.62-mm bullet from a gun Nagano. Accordingly, some of its thickening (to a reasonable extent) could protect a person and more of something massive.
Since the revival of cuirasses. Must be seen in the Japanese boards Our homeland said the order for their own army infantry 100 thousand cuirasses from the French company "Simone Geslyuen and K". But the delivered product was worthless. Or the company cmoshennichala or affected intrigued Paris to defeat Russian — which resulted in him still plenty of in the vvyazyvanie debt bondage to French banks.
Proved to be reliable means of protection of Russian design. Among them are the creators of more famous Colonel AA Chemerzin, which manufactured the breastplate of them developed various iron alloys. This is no doubt a professional person can be called by Pope Russian body armor.
By World breastplate in Russia came into vogue. They outfitted the metropolitan police — to protect against bullets and knives felons revolutionaries. Several thousands of them were sent to the army. Cuirasses nestled (under the clothes) wearing interested persons and civilians, who feared an armed robbery — despite the highest prices (from 1500 to 8000 rubles). How annoying would it sounds, along with the first demand for these models civilian body armor appeared first bandyugany, use it. Promising that their product is not a machine gun and shoot, they sold the breastplate, which to put it mildly, does not stand up to any test.
In the battles of the First World breastplates and similar remedies used not only our homeland, and other countries. Checking in fact showed their advantages and disadvantages. Certainly, it was canceled body protection — with its relevant bodies necessary. But resistance breastplates depended on its thickness. The slender and lightweight does not protect against bullets and fragments of larger, more fat is weighed so much that wage war it became impossible.
Guards 1st ShISBr after a combat mission. The 1st Belorussian Front, Summer 1944. Reviews of soldiers then used their breastplates were very mixed
Relatively successful compromise was found in 1938, when the Red Army entered the first experimental metal breastplate CH-38 (CH-1). As is clear from the title, he defended a soldier just ahead (chest, stomach and groin). Due to the economy back on defense the opportunity to increment the thickness of sheet iron, without overloading the very fighter. But all the feeble hand such solutions have proven during the Finnish company, and in 1941 began the development and creation of Chest CH-42 (CH-2). Its creators were armored laboratory of the Institute of Metals (TSNIIM) under MI Koryukova — 1st of the creator of the famous Russian helmets, consisting in service to this day.
CH-42 consisted of a 2-three plates of width mm, top and bottom — as in the whole bib fighter if he could not not bend or sit down. It is well protected from debris from gunfire (at a distance greater than 100 meters), although it did not comply with a shot from a rifle or machine gun. At first, they were equipped with a group of army special forces — assault engineer-sapper brigade (ShISBr). They were used in the most languid sections: the capture of the massive fortifications, street battles. At the front, they were called "armor-clad infantry ', also jokingly," crayfish ".
In 1946, he entered into service CH-46, the last of the metal breastplate. Its thickness was increased to 5 mm, which can withstand all of the machine such as PCA or MR-40 at a distance of 25 m, and for added convenience, a fighter he is consisted of 3 parts.
Plate made of Kevlar and cellophane
Iron cuirass had three flaws: a lot of weight, the inconvenience of traffic, and if it enters the bullet — breakaway pieces of steel and the spray of lead, injuring its owner. Get rid of them managed through the use of a cloth material made of strong synthetic fibers.
One of the first new means of protecting Americans did. During the Korean War, th
ey supplied their own fighter of multilayer nylon jackets. There were a number of species (M-1951, M-1952, M-12, etc.), while some have very real cut vest — fastens in the front. Against the bullets they were powerless, and in general initially were intended to protect the crews of military equipment from small fragments. That's why they closed the only fighter to the waist. A little later began to issue body armor and those soldiers who fought in the war, "his two" (in other words, the infantry). To do this, they extended and added a protective collars. In addition, for greater security, were placed inside the vest (sewn in place or put into special pockets) iron plate.
Officer of the U.S. Air Force demining unit in a protective suit to withstand the blast of a few kilograms of TNT. Photo: William M. Plate Jr / US DoD
With these vests the United States entered the Vietnam War. Analysis of the losses of the American army showed that 70-75% of injuries are shrapnel, with the majority — in the trunk. To reduce them, it was decided to put the polls in the infantry body armor that helped out a lot of American soldiers and officers of the wounds, and even from death.
The emergence of particularly strong synthetic material Kevlar, developed in 1965 by the U.S. company DuPont, also special ceramics, allowed the U.S. to start the production of body armor that could have something to protect them from bullets and a fighter.
USSR with the introduction of body armor is somewhat behind — can be so severe as in the first war was involved exclusively in 1980, entering into Afghanistan. A year later, has been adopted Army vest F-81 cut of 30 layers of fabric CBM (Russian counterpart Kevlar) and sewn armor plates of width 1.25 mm. Unfortunately, they only protect from debris — making the way gunfire since 400-600 meters. Because in 1985, it is replaced with bullet-proof vests F-85T and the F-85K, which has been used in a thick armor plate made of titanium and boron carbide, and then was developed F-86, which was performed in 9 modification.
Boron carbide, coupled with corundum and silicon carbide, and are now used for the production of body armor Russian army. In contrast to metals, these materials are in contact with the bullet fragments do not — that would later have to pick out the doctors and crumble into harmless "sand" (as the window of the car).
In addition to several major combined arms (infantry) models in service with the army and the intelligence agencies and countless be specific, from pilots to protective clothing similar to gallakticheskie suits bronekostyumy engineers, enhanced special frame — which should not stand only fragments, and the blast wave. Not without some oddities: In fact, body armor is always "was cut out" for the guys, but at the moment the army en masse go ladies, a figure which, as you know, has some differences.
Meanwhile, in the manufacture of body armor promise to make another revolution. For example, the Dutch company «Heerlen» announced the development of tissue «Dyneema SB61» of polyethylene fiber, which, in its assurances to 40% stronger than Kevlar.
One of the most advanced security technologies — Kevlar fabric impregnated with liquid with suspended metal particles. Photo: Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs Office
But experts at the Institute of Delaware and «US Army Research Laboratory» (USA) offered quite unusual "liquid armor". Their experimental model — is Kevlar fabric impregnated material STF — consistency of microscopic particles of silica and polyethylene glycol. Sense of innovation that quartz particles, extending into the fabric fibers, replace him awkward push-armor plate.
Legends and true body armor
As is the case with the military cuirasses, after the occurrence of body armor in the army, they wanted to have the civilians. The excitement on their displays directly after the Korean War — soldiers returning home were in charge of the "magic vests" a lot of mind-blowing stories. In the end, there was a myth that ordinary cloth vest absolutely impenetrable. Moreover, there were tales of some of the "bronerubashkah" — found themselves sell everyday. Judge for yourself: the shirt is just one of the first layer of fabric, which is not even enough to prevent little "browning". To protect yourself, you need to wear at least the last kevlar "jerkin."
Ordinary civilians vests belong to the class of 1-3. The first of several layers of fabric, protects against bullets and gun type PM Nagant — but less! Also, it is simply pierce stiletto or awl, which pass through the Kevlar fabric, pushing its fibers (such as through the links of mail). The second class is sufficiently dense thick jackets, reinforced in the most important areas of fundamental thin inserts (usually metal). They are designed for TT pistol and bullet models of pistols chambered in 9mm.
3rd grade — it is the least comfortable body armor, equipped with armor plates. They are designed to protect against shots from lung machines — there is not an automatic Kalashnikov assault rifle and submachine guns such as the PCA, "Uzi", "Kohler-Koch," etc.
All three classes — is nestled wearing body armor, which is worn under a shirt, sweater, jacket. At the request and the availability of additional funds will make them for you to order at least some style and color. Often enough to fulfill customers demand them as ordinary vest from a suit or a lady's corset, from time to time — to disguise under a jacket or coat. This should priemuschestvenno for aesthetic judgments, not to shock others — if the public face of its owner.
In need of protection and dogs trained to search for explosives. Photo: Spc. Barbara Ospina / US Army
Must be seen to have body armor broader host range than it seems at first glance. For example, in Israel, they sometimes bought for the children — for obvious reasons. And in England want to wear bulletproof vests in police dogs.
Fourth and fifth grade bulletproof vests already referred to Professor, fighting — and they are provided for the army, police, secret services. These worn over a suit and thick enough languorous "shell" promise that your body armor will protect not only from the fragments of a grenade exploded near, and survive a bullet from a Kalashnikov and M-16 and even a sniper rifle. But not in focus, and a distance of several hundred meters, and the usual rather than the armor-piercing core — which passes through the Kevlar yarn as an awl and a hit record.
At the theoretical level, body armor can be embedded chip that will withstand even a bullet from a gun mnogokalibernogo. Here are just a fighter that does not help out. And here's why.
Armour, whether it is steel, Kevlar or composite, until just delays the bullet or fragment: only a part of its kinetic energy is converted into heat in inelastic deformations vest and the bullet itself. But with all this momentum is maintained. And getting into a bulletproof vest, pistol bullet is a blow that can be associated with a good hook Prof. boxer. A bullet from a machine banging on armor plates with a sledgehammer force — breaking ribs and fighting off the inside. That's why even under the iron breastplates and bibs fighters poddevaem cotton sweatshirts or home-made cushions — for at least some mitigating the impact. At the moment, for this use shock absorbing pads of resilient porous materials. Yes, and they just kind of help.
What happens when a bullet hits 12.7 mm, it is easy to imagine yourself. It is unlikely that the poor guy with the broken light in beef crumbles and spine stick together even the most experienced surgeon. T
hat is why strengthening bulletproof vest advisable only to a certain point — after which just better not to tempt fate.
Body armor is not a wall, behind which you can indulge in unnecessary foolhardiness. This is the last protection on the last occasion.