Michael Cherniavskyi society — a man whose services to Belarus is difficult to enumerate. As it is difficult to list them so as to determine their relative importance. Scientist, archaeologist, ethnographer Michael Cherniavsky — this is the man that brought memories of Zelva Larissa Heniyush, recreated the life of the head of the underground anti-Soviet Myadzel Rostislav Lapitski and wrote the book "10 battles" that everyone is interested in reading the history of his native Belarusian teenager.
Now Michael Cherniavsky for 70 years. He's one of those people who are tempered our independence and thanks to whose loyalty became possible events 90-91 years of the twentieth century.
The wife of Michael Cherniavsky, Mrs. Svetlana — a pediatrician, daughter Alesia — art historian, son Maxim — historian. The family grows two granddaughters and a grandson.
Most of our conversation in the family Cherniavskyi we devoted dissident activities of society, which is called the Academic Center. She grouped the national intelligentsia in the 1960s and 70s. For this community, among others, belonged Arseny Lees, Nicholas Prashkovich, Ales Kavrus, Zenon Pozniak.
Michael Cherniavskyi"I have already, in principle, has arrived in Minsk conscious person. Maybe it is because we have moved from their cool — this village is on Batorino, it is almost entirely orthodox, so that's Belarus. My father bought a farm east of Miadzel. There have been a farm is very different. We have a farm — Orthodox Belarusians were several hamlets Catholics, and, accordingly, they regarded themselves as Poles, and four farms were Tatars. That was such a International. And there was a sense of nationality. After all, on the border of cultures is always very acute nationality.
Michael Cherniavskyi with his brother Methodius and their parents.
My father said I was a Belorussian taught. I remember that I was still quite small "p" is not uttered, and he poked me in the chest with his finger and said, "You remember, do you — Belarusian!." I said, "I — belalus, belalus». That was the first science of national feeling. Maybe that's because there were other farms that identify themselves as other ethnic groups. "
Mother Maryla Chernjavskaja. 1969. Snapshot Zenon Pozniak
Just opened early for Michael Cherniavskii sense of historicism of what's going on and their own involvement in the story:
Michael Cherniavskyi"When I went to the fifth grade, took place for the process of the underground Mjadelsky — Lapitski group. And Lapitski been shot somewhere in the fall. And we are the lessons of Botany and Zoology brought a very beautiful drawings. Then after the war, there was nothing — we wrote on notebooks made out of brown bags U.S. paperanyh from egg powder on the papers — what just did not write. The ink was made from soot — dissolved it and wrote it. And these drawings … I was even told that it is our Slava Lapitsky painted, he was shot, and shot over Belarus. And I kid had a feeling that the "shot for Belarus." And I was so shocked. And it remains for life.
And I knew they were distributed leaflets. And now, in the fifth or maybe sixth grade I decided to distribute flyers. Took the notebook in the box and write in block capitals there is something almost "Away Russian occupiers." Cuts on such a strip and walked out of his home in Mjadel 5 miles away and gently scattered on the road. Thank God it was winter, snow, and, of course, no one has found nothing, because, of course, if found, would be calculated quite easily. Here is my revolutionary impulse was covered with snow.
And then when I went to college in absentia, has worked at the school — in Pilkavshchyne, in other schools, at home, by the way, Maxim Tank. And one of my high school Novoselok presented several books interwar time — "Reader Belarusian literature", "History of the Belarusian literature" and "Kalosse", a couple of rooms. But I've already finished 10 classes has been a student. My eyes were opened — that the Belarusian literature, and in fact 90 per cent did not know the names of the poets and writers, even of the same Zmitraka Byadulya. These verses I had never read it! That's me done with in a conscious act of nationalist.
In general, I bought a lot of books, maybe with a first class service. And I saw one already, maybe on the fourth course, a book with the title "Mother's Soul" (a collection of poems Vl. Karatkevich 1958 — Ed.). Well, I think, a strange name — usually there to "Spring Forward", "Deep tillage," "Song of the tractor," and then "Mother's Soul" … I opened — the first verse: "In the age-old native maples begin to fly around … quietly." It struck me as incredible. And so I met Korotkevich. "
Arriving in Minsk, Michael Cherniavskyi already here looked for Belarus on Wednesday and quickly found like-minded people. About a year later he met with Vladimir Korotkevich personally.
Mikhail and Vladimir Cherniavsky Karatkevich
Michael Cherniavskyi"What else affects us greatly — back those who were in exile, still" not finished ". We often went to the apartment of Joseph Sushinsky. He is a chemist by training, graduated from the University of St. Petersburg, participated in the community "look in the sun in our little window," was personally acquainted with the Yanka Kupala, took part in the Belarusian movement. He was a member of the First All-Belarusian Congress. For us it was, you know, Apostle — Apostle of Christ.
Of course, we collected literature mass — that is possible. According to Western Belarus, the old teachers. All sorts of magazines, books, often went to Vilnius, where "Antiques" — second-hand shop … I "Way of Life" by Anton News — such literary essays, a small booklet — maybe 20 pieces bought. All that was. And so distributed that looked like, I have nothing left.
Michael Cherniavskyi in archaeological exploration.
And bought a lot of literature antynatsyyanalistychnay. Any where runners idols, "partners in crime" — all of the Belarusian nationalists. This is only because of what you can find out what is in there somewhere Belarusian movement.
You know the Belarusian Union of Patriots — Glybotskoe and Postavy pedvuchylishcha. Alexander Yurshevich told how they formed this organization in the Deep. They accidentally found in the old school "Belarus yesterday and Syanno" Joseph Naydyuk. And he says: "For us, it was like the Bible, the Gospel — was a revelation." He says that this is one book that's set up our organization. "
At his home in Mikasetsku in Mjadelsky area. Michael and Svetlana Chernjavskaja, Mikola Kupava, Lilly and Igor Cherniavsky, Nicholas Vlashchyk, Mikhail Tkachev, Sergey Poniznik Methodius Cherniavskyi, Vyacheslav baton, Irina Marochkina, Eugene Kulick. 1981.
Members of the academic environment was considered necessary to seek nationally conscious young people who helped to come into schools to get a job.
Michael Cherniavskyi"And try, if where someone works involve the party. And then the party — would become a communist — but it dawned on me. And we were forced, coaxed. That was Gennady Kochanowski — a wonderful person, local historian, scientist, then he became the director of the Minsk Regional Museum in Maladzechna. The holy man. The devotee was incredibly Belarus. And he said to me: "Mike, you know, I'm going to bed and I think that is what slavery in Belarus — is a dream. And I will wake up — and suddenly remember that it was all a dream, and I woke up in a free Belarus ". How he fought back, but we made it, just forcibly shoved him — joined the party. And he became the director of the museum, and has done a lot for Belarus. "
In 1973-74 the Belarusian KGB exposed as a nationalist community. Long hauled in for questioning after dismissed from the Academy of Sciences of the ban on the trade.
Radio Liberty"Svetlana, remember a time when Michael was summoned to the KGB? Did you have small children? . "
Svetlana Chernyavskaya"Ales was, and Maxim was not there, we did a Maxim spite them. It was very scary, very difficult. Michael is very strong man, has always been strong as adamant, but the Academy of Sciences and arhealegiya for him too much. It's like a house, he has invested so much there. And then it suddenly just a week zlomvayuts, and all. He was, of course, very confused. Not broken, but threw himself at all. From the moment Cherniavskii many turn away, it was scary, really scary. "
Michael and Svetlana Chernjavskaja. Two thousand Snapshot Vladimir Karmilkin
Michael Cherniavskyi"So we pulled in for questioning in the summer in the KGB, pulled well, this is Detective intact. I once in a day, Svetlana talked with them, read the lecture. She gave me some pills, and I found something. And it is a science: the less you say, the less you say.
Svetlana Chernyavskaya"Citramon gave '(Laughs).
Michael Cherniavskyi"Well, I'm on the national question — as in Indonesia is solved, as else where. Even the "dig up" on Karatkevich. After all, they wanted to make Karatkevich leader of the underground nationalist organization leader. I Karatkevich and "dug out." He said: "I do not consider it a true Belarusian patriots, as he and his wife spoke in Russian at times." They tell me: "Yes, you bigot!".
So somewhere there is recorded in the archives that Cherniavskyi believes that Karatkevich not present Belarusian "(Laughs).
In the workshop, along with Alexis Marochkina Korotkevich. (Michael Cherniavsky — second from the right)
Michael Cherniavsky says that followed the whole family — and for him and his wife. But the hardest thing was — the inability to do what he likes.
Michael Cherniavskyi"The only thing that was hard, that you suddenly disappeared from the world, you are not present. All articles that you were in the press, — threw a monograph has been in print — thrown away. All references thrown at you. And you can only work somewhere physically. Party organizer of the Academy said: "Work where you want, just not in the academy." I took the guard to the Botanical Gardens, but he said no!
Well, the artists joined, I had a working lyavkasnaga workshop in production and art workshops. We've done all sorts of boards for artistic promotion, lyavkachyli them, and artists have painted there the workers, peasants, communists, Brezhnev.
And the most money I earned for the yellow-and-black ribbon at the top of St. George's homes in Victory Square. "
Michael Cherniavskyi insists that the academic environment was not an anti-Soviet organization.
"We did not show anti-Soviet. Of course, we have seen that they do it Russification, they destroy the entire Belarusian. But we tried not to show pure anti-communism. We say: let them do anticommunism in Moscow and Leningrad, as they have no other problems, national, — kitaizatsyi, anglaizatsyi or Belarusization. If we spend more energy on social or anti-communist movement, crush us, because we have so little. Our main was — to keep at least some movement of the Belarusian language preserve the historical memory, history, and finds people. So when there was Czechoslovakia, we have long thought, my friends, what do you do — go out sometime, make a flyer or something like that? Then came the hem teeth and wait it out. And almost no one came out just Anatoly Sidorevich officially addressed the pedsavetse for that and in the "loony bin" hit. "
Special understanding of the correctness of natsiotvorcheskogo passed on from Mr. Mikhail children.
Ales Chernjavskaja and Vladimir Karatkevich. 1978
Ales Chernjavskaja"I remember I was in the seventh grade, came home from school and say," How can they say the lessons of history such nonsense!. "My father started screaming at me:" No! Do not do it! Do not pay attention! it is impossible! You have to work for Belarus, you should not be involved in politics. "But that was before the restructuring.
Nobody did anything contributions, we are in this boiled. We have, of course, there were no revelations, no insight, we Belarusians. We had it from birth. "
Maxim Cherniavsky"I remember as a child drew a castle, and on it a white-red-white flag. And remember my little resentment when it turned out that it was "wrong" and that the colors are not the ones, but where it vkladalasya, absolutely do not remember. "
Olesya and Maxim said that in Soviet times they had to lead a double life: one in the Belarusian-language family and friends, and the second — in school and on the street. In the late 80's the situation has changed.
Ales Chernjavskaja"I do not remember from which year we went to rallies. I was at the first meeting, in Kurapaty was at the stadium "Dinamo", when 40,000 people gathered 1991st year I remember well. The adoption of the flag remember. At the meetings, we went as a job, 10 years. "
Maxim Cherniavsky, Svetlana Chernjavskaja, Jan Severin Belyavets, Ales Chernjavskaja-Belyavets, Vadim Belyavets
Maxim Cherniavsky"I have actually had two lives, say, children and youth. One Life to 1990 — up to 8-9 grade, I was here in 111 schools, which is now 14th gymnasium. But I finish it even when I was a normal school. Hung in there even a portrait of Stalin, and when was about to restructuring, the cleaning lady rebelled: "Shoot, because I will not wash it" — its all time zaplevvali.
In the 9th grade, I went to the first year of Sunday Kolosovsky Lyceum. Lyceum — it was, of course, completely different life, because there were like-minded people, because there were children here just this older wheel. And there really was a coup. "
Children Maxim and Olesya as naturally grown Belarusians.
Maxim Cherniavsky"I do not deny that I Belarusian-speaking, I do not hide their views, all I know. Who is unpleasant, then avoiding me. And who does not avoid, so they, too, it's interesting. A large number of friends and Belarusian and Russian. "
Maxim Cherniavskyi to the archaeological site. 2009
Ales Chernjavskaja"Families Belarusian-us, and so we bring up children. Here my son is in fifth grade and the same radical. Interested in the biography of Constantine Kalinowski and wants to repeat his feat. "
Grandchildren Michael Cherniavskii: Danuta, John, Martha
Michael Cherniavskyi"Well, now Belarus on Wednesday and is at work, too, and that's Maxim works where I worked.
I was young, it was worse. We all had such a young, vigorous, well, wow those were. I'm tired of these girls Russian language — through, in a hostel, everywhere, is all Russian. And Arseny Fox says, "Listen, I have a adnaklyasnitsa (and he ended up Smorgon ten-year) in the Belarusian philology. There's a hostel in the entire room, all the girls with the Belarusian philology. Let's get acquainted." We, therefore, soaped, washed the neck, something better dressed, worried. Come meet with Belarusian girls. And they lived in a dorm on campus Sverdlov. We go ahead Arseny Fox, go into the room where everyone lives filyalyagini of the Belarusian branch. Meets us adnaklyasnitsa Arseny: "Guys, how good of you to come! Sit down yourself at home". We sat for maybe 10 minutes and went silent, not talking, not yet gone (laughs). So that was then, right now. "
Wedding Maxim and Ales Chernjavskaja.
Maxim Cherniavsky"Now the situation is radically different, and I can not say that she is the best in fact, than it was in your time. Can be briefly described as follows: if someone is your time to speak Belarusian, it could say "village". And now, so no one will say, as a village in Belarusian is not talking.
Then after you were, say, the parents. There was one Myadel, who spoke Belarusian, so I remember when I was a kid. But in Minsk, nobody talked, at least was the people. Now the situation was completely different. For example, if you speak Belarusian, you open the door to strangers, because it means you're not a thief, you're a decent person. But, on the other hand, there is this' background is "where it would go.
Michael Cherniavskyi in archaeological exploration. 2007
I personally do about it quite boring and annoying. And now I come to the same Mjadel or in the village, and rather unpleasant sensation, as found in Myadel people who would speak Belarusian, hard. "
In 1988, Michael became a member of the organizing committee Cherniavskyi BNF. The family will keep since precious memories:
Svetlana Chernyavskaya"Imagine, if adopted by the Supreme Council of the independence of our own, Cherniavskyi was terribly worried that they do not have a white-red-white flag and that of the House that the government will not hang. And here they were with the stock. And in the morning, at six o'clock, probably — I imagine it as a movie — he suffered the flag that someone has hung up. And they found an area with Zenon Pazniak "
Michael Cherniavskyi"I have tears streaming from his eyes. I do not remember, it seems to Zeno as tears flowed from her eyes. I came out of the station, the area was very, very empty. I'm out — and I see Zenon goes diagonally. And we agree on the center … And as flag hanging — hung at night — a white-red-white flag … And we hugged each other and cried. "