NASA is going to build a space base on the back side of the Earth's natural satellite. This was officially reported by the press service of the agency. The fate of this project is largely dependent on the outcome of the U.S. presidential election.
Mitt Romney advocated reducing spending on science, while the leader of the Democratic Party, Barack Obama is a supporter of further space exploration. In the end, after Barack Obama's victory in the elections NASA announced plans to build a manned base on the Moon. In the future, Washington is planning the development of the study of Mars and the asteroid belt. After scoring the plans experts were divided in their opinions on the bill of what it is seeking U.S. spectacular demonstration of its own technical and scientific development of the power or the nearest space.
In particular, the Americans are talking about building a manned space station in the so-called Lagrange point — L2 on the back side of the moon. By 2025, with the base of the Americans plan to make its first flight to asteroids, and in 2030 — to send an expedition to Mars. Such a task Obama has set out to space agency NASA 2 years ago. It is assumed that the first flights in the L2 point will have to take place in 2021, when it made the first manned launch of the new SLS rocket and spacecraft 'Orion'.
Built plant will not just be monitored solar system, but also carries out manned missions to Mars and the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, RBC reports referring to the American expert John Logdona NASA. According to him, after the re-election of Obama, NASA can expect to receive funding that is needed to create a lunar base.
At the same time the main current project NASA — Mars Rover Curiosity — continues to successfully implement its mission on Mars. Not so long ago, the rover tried to "taste" the Martian atmosphere by taking the necessary analyzes of gases that make up the atmosphere of the Red Planet. Scientists believe that in the past Martian atmosphere was much more like Earth and therefore at some time even on Mars could support life. Currently, scientists have to deal with the fact the reason why the planet has lost its former atmosphere.
Research is our natural satellite — the Moon has always been a priority for mankind. Another thing is that after the implementation of a series of more or less successful missions to the moon very valuable scientifically, first of all it is a question of manned space flight, when American astronauts take a walk on the surface of the interest in this celestial body fell. After the implementation of the program "Apollo" that scientists have doubts about the feasibility of the projects. Over, the United States has spent a lot of resources on its lunar program, but they were able to demonstrate their technical superiority. In this case, the success of their lunar program was not only the result of a fantastic effort and money, but simply to have a very successful combination of different circumstances.
But even then, many experts have noted a very powerful propaganda effect of the U.S. lunar program, stressing that the Soviet approach based on the use of automatic stations (rovers) seems to be more rational. At present, many in Roskosmos hold the same opinions, seeing little prospect of sending men to the moon. This is not surprising, because to send a man into space is still dangerous and quite expensive. Especially when it comes to landing men on the moon. Yuri Caras member correspondent of the Russian Academy of Cosmonautics. Tsiolkovsky believed that permanent manned base on the lunar surface are not necessary, they are not necessary, even if they are considered as the first step for the future development of the people of Mars.
Currently, the only and the most attractive resource of our satellite is its distance from the planet. Fly to the moon only 3 days and it is an achievable goal at this stage of development of our civilization. Almost 50 years ago, fly to the moon was not a problem, what can we say about today. So the question is, what needs a base on the moon and what astronauts would do there. Russian designers and engineers have proven that the Martian technology can be applied on the moon, but the moon on Mars — no. The process of entry manned the machine into the dense layers of the atmosphere of Mars, planting, building a manned base on the module surface of the Red Planet has nothing to do with the construction of a habitable base on the Moon. Mars has some sort of nikaya atmosphere and on this planet very different conditions.
Back in 2004, President George W. Bush declared the program to return Americans to the moon. But then it was most likely an act of desperation, the reaction to the death of the spaceship "Columbia" (then as a result of the destruction of the shuttle during landing killing seven astronauts.) After a while Washington worked on his new lunar program, the Americans realized that in fact it will be the same program "Apollo", only a side view. After that, any reasonable questions about whether throw away billions of dollars in repetition? In the end, it was decided that money to spend on anything new, so the idea of the new purpose of the flight — Mars. On the way to Mars would be staying at one of the asteroids, but in any case — it would have been flying over the lunar orbit, said Yuri Caras, while flying to the moon does not have any practical meaning.
Of course, the skepticism of experts is easy to explain. But Americans expect to build their lunar base is not on the surface of the satellite, and in lunar orbit in one of the so-called Lagrange points. Data points in the Earth-Sun there are exactly five pieces. In this case, if each of these points to place a small celestial body (the station, the spacecraft), then at that point it will be in a state of equilibrium.
In this case, most specialists NASA interested second Lagrange point, called L2. This point is one of the 3 points located on a line that passes through the Earth and the Sun. At that point L1 is at a distance of 1.5 million kilometers between the Earth and the Sun. A point L2 is at the same distance, but "for" Earth. The third and final point L3 is on the opposite side of the Sun orbits the Earth. The two remaining points — L4 and L5 are located on the Earth's orbit — one "upstream" of our planet, and the other — "behind". Equilibrium in 2 of these points will be sustainable, these points L4 and L5 are significantly different from the first three of the Lagrange points, where the heavenly body will be like a ball, located on the tip of the pyramid.
We have to admit that at the present time, the Lagrange point quite mastered by mankind. For example, in the L1 are 2 American probe, who study the solar wind. Another NASA probe is placed at the L2 and studies the cosmic microwave background radiation. In addition, there is also the telescope "Herschel" that researchers are going to drop in the spring of 2013 on the lunar surface after it run out of liquid helium. In the near future, at L2 will have to settle another telescope — the US-European "James Webb", which should be replaced by a world-famous telescope "Hubble".
If we talk about points L4 and L5 then there is already felt the presence of man. At these points the work probes the twin STEREO-A and STEREO-B, which is transmitted to the surface of the earth a large number of different images of active processes that occur on the surface of our bodies. In addition, the present data using probes, scientists are studying the immediate vicinity of the fourth and fifth Lagrange points for the detection of asteroids here. In theory, these celestial bodies should "roll" in these terms, like billiard balls, sliding into the pockets.
At that point it was almost L2 is an ideal place to explore distant neighborhoods of our planet. It was at this point the Earth's gravity, which is added to the attraction of the Sun, is such that the orbital period of the spacecraft for an extended orbit is exactly equal to the terrestrial year. Thus, the spacecraft, appeared at this point, all the time would like to hide from the sun, in the shadow of our planet. It was around this point can be most convenient to place the base to use for the colonization of the moon. Base, suspended at the point L2, almost does not consume fuel, the editor of the magazine "Aviapanorama." Currently L2 point is actively used for posting here telescopes. At this point, the Earth is almost completely obscure the light of the sun, and indeed does not prevent surveillance, as addressed to this point in its shadow face.