Experts refute the theory that the national hero was killed in the swamp
In the history of Russia there are several seemingly immutable truths. Ivan the Terrible killed his son. Peter opened a "window to Europe." The Winter Palace in 1917 shot "Aurora". That we are taught at school. And few people realize it unfolded at the fact.
Another, more recently, the unshakable page of Russian history in the near future, it may be rewritten. We are talking about Ivan Susanin, killing enemies in a swamp-Poles. Recently, we got the results of field and laboratory studies related to the identification of skeletal remains found folk hero. The result: dumping the person who committed the feat for the sake of the life of the Tsar Mikhail Romanov, was found not in the forest jungle. A 150 meters from the village of dilapidated churches Isupova Kostroma region!
Like really killed Ivan Susanin? Surprisingly, the scientists argue about it until now. Research by historians, scholars and archaeologists in the period from 2001 to the present day, have no analogues. It has been studied more than 360 remains, buried since the XVI century in the necropolis at Isupovskogo stream, which flows into the very pure swamp, where, as expected, and started the Polish gentry folk hero. And recently in the Russian Center for Forensic Medicine received the remains, presumably, Ivan Susanin. The last point in this research will deliver a comparative DNA analysis of the remains of the hero and his descendants. But scientists now there is little doubt accessories found remains of the Romanov famous elder fiefdoms.
The search began dumping Susanin in Kostroma region in July 2001. Curator and mastermind of all the work was chief archaeologist Kostroma Sergey Alekseev and his right-hand man, 29-year-old head of the Research and Restoration Center, Alexander Novikov.
— When we started to look for burial, there are three main versions of where it might be, — said Sergey Alekseev reporter "MK". — The first and most common — the remains found in the woods, by a pure marshes. Second — they were reburied on the orders of Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich in the estate Domnino near the Church of the Resurrection. By the way, this little church can contemplate the painting "The Rooks Have Arrived". And finally, the third — the necropolis is located in the village of Isupova where Susanin, as written in Zhalovannoj Anna Ivanovna in 1731 literacy descendants headman, was a martyr executed Poles — impaled, and then chopped with an ax.
The first version of the scientists immediately found unconvincing. In fact, to get lost in the swamp of Pure impossible. At this point very clearly seen the whole area. And it is unclear why would nobles cried out: Where are you led us, no one can see it's pitch. The second version is no longer on purely chronological reason: burial in Domnin can be dated to a later period, a difference of 100 years. Besides could Mikhail sign such a decree, for then he was not yet king. Thus, by process of elimination historians stopped on the assumption that the burial should look at the village Isupova, in the early burial ground near the church. It is there that could lead Susanin Poles through the forest, along the marsh, with one goal: to gain time and thereby enable the Romanovs to escape from the estate.
Recall that Ivan Susanin, who lived with his family in the village The village has been transformed by a Polish conductor of the estate of the Romanovs in Domnin where the nobles had intended to catch Michael's with his whole family. But thanks to our hero they never got there, and the future king managed to escape. Subsequently saved the king bestowed his brother-savior (at Susanin's daughter and stayed two grandchildren) Bogdan Sabinin half the village in the property. This is evidenced by preserved letter of credence signed by the sovereign.
Actually, all the villages in this district are located on the high-rises around the net marshes, whose length is about 15-20 kilometers. Domnino is on the opposite side of the Isupova. Along the marsh not taiga, and rare forest glade. If you go down to the central part of the bog, then this place can be easily seen almost all the domes of village churches. Going all the way which could lead Susanin Poles, archaeologists were convinced of the correctness of their assumptions: they could not get lost, like all the villages in the palm of your hand! So, he led them along the marsh with only one purpose — to divert away from Domnina, in the opposite direction, in Isupova, and thus gain time. That's why he was put to death in Isupova, and thus buried there.
Focusing on the third version of the graves, archaeologists began excavations in the village Isupova. Within two years, meter by meter carefully, by hand, they were filming the age-old layers of clay soil. In 2003, in those places there was a terrible drought, and clay compressed into bricks, and in 2004, on the contrary, it started pouring rain. Archaeologists had to bail water out of the necropolis, wait until the clay dries out, and only then, wielding a brush and a knife, dig out one bone after another. A hell of a job!
The village, consisting of 10 houses, has long been dead. Houses are destroyed, to the nearest drinking water wells stomp than one kilometer. But archaeologists have dug as dung beetles, spit on adversity.
The scientists studied 360 remains. By process of elimination were selected by four male skeleton with signs of violent death. After careful analysis it was found out that one of them belonged to quite a young man (not older than 25 years), the other two still have died, as we would say detectives, "no crime".
That left the last one. On the skull of men (age 45-50 years) were traces of chopped wounds in the parietal-temporal region (possibly from an ax blade) and blunt injuries nasal bone. Damage to a number of leg bones and pelvic bones were given the opportunity to suggest that the accident was impaled and chipped. "This is it" — the scientists were delighted. Because that's what killed the Poles, Ivan Susanin! Kostroma immediately contacted the head of the department of identification of the Russian Centre of Forensic Medical Examination, Professor Viktor Zvyagin. Now everything depended on it — it was urgent to carry out a comparative analysis of the found remains of the dead and the living descendants of Susanin.
— Then, in 2004, for me, was a complete surprise news that Ivan Susanin did not die in the forest at the edge of the swamp, and in the village Isupova — says Professor Viktor Zvyagin. — But at least with these excavations dating I became more convinced of the correctness of judgments archaeologists. I can assure you: analogues of such work does not exist. This enormous project can be compared, perhaps, only to the fact that we had to do during the study and identification of the remains of Vitus Bering. Or the study of the necropolis progenitor of the Romanov dynasty Novospasskoe monastery …
In order to gather comparative data necessary for the identification of the remains of Ivan Susanin, Viktor was kind of Susanin's family tree until descendants alive today.
After the presentation of diplomas king's daughter Susanin Anna and her husband Bogdan Sabinin and two children moved to another location. They settled in the village of Korobovo, and buried their dead in the churchyard of the village Sabinina Priskokova. So far, there are living descendants of Susanin in the 16th generation. In 1854, when Alexander II, Susanin's race fell out of favor and was exiled in neighboring provinces, including in Saratov, under the name of Belopahovy. Their descendants in the 14th generation live today — not only here but also in Moscow.
At the request of the expert all of the known descendants of the national hero presented numerous extant photographs, recordings and memories that are passed down from generation to generation. After reviewing all the materials available to it, Zvyagin could draw portraits of relatives and especially family phenotype appearance (height, face, figure, pathology of all types, etc.) All of this was the basic material in the comparative analysis of the remains of Susanin. For greater accuracy comparisons were studied and the remains of some of the graves closest descendants of the hero. All this is possible with a high degree of probability that the remains discovered really belong to Ivan Susanin.
Officially, it goes like this:
A study of medical and forensic investigation of any signs that exclude accessory bone remains of the reliquary 13A necropolis "Isupova" Ivan Susanin Osipovich not found.
— We found a needle in a huge haystack — says the professor, and with it we can not agree. — I am happy that we did it right now, because there is no guarantee that in the near future we might be a chance. But to talk about the full completion of the work is premature. I hope that this will happen in March. In Kostroma scheduled reporting conference. That's when we officially announce the results of years of research.
Battery News, 09.02.2005 12:25
Source: Moskovsky Komsomolets