Experience of Iraq, Yugoslavia, Libya showed that save on defense — criminal
In Russia, hitherto living pleasant memoir about what great loss suffered by the South American aviation Russian anti-aircraft missiles (SAMs) in Vietnam in 1965-1973, respectively, and the Israeli — the Suez Canal in 1970 and 1973. With all this we can not accept the fact that after the Vietnam Aviation always won at ground defense (including in 1973 in the Middle East). Particularly revealing debacle that Israeli aircraft started a Syrian air defenses in the Lebanese Bekaa valley in June 1982, and U.S. Air Force and its allies — the Iraqi air defenses in January — February 1991. These two examples are taken as the defense of Syria and Iraq, including a strong and modern (as opposed to the defense of Yugoslavia in 1999, or the same of Iraq in 2003). Israelis in June 1982, lost only one fighter «Kfir» (hit by S-75) in July — a «Phantom» (SAM shot down «Wasp»), in addition, the Syrian anti-aircraft artillery hit several helicopters. U.S. and its allies during the «Desert Storm» lost ground from the Iraqi air defense assets of approximately 40 aircraft. The defeat was a defense for all that in both cases the complete and absolute.
Excluding technical and tactical qualities victory over aviation ground defense due to the fact that the first always has the initiative, and the second is required to wait passively. In this case change the situation in any way unrealistic.
Unrealistic and do without ground defense. She, unlike aviation, all-weather, it does not need vorachivatsya the airfield after a combat mission, its staff, despite the complexity of the technology, cooking is easier than the flight crews (at least based on the beliefs of physical training), it is not asking for a plurality of petroleum products ( but can be connected to an external power supply sources), it is usually more ready to fire ammunition than aviation. In addition, the mere presence of air defense aviation forces diversion requests at its suppression. At the same time stronger than ground defense, the more air is necessary for its oppression. Accordingly, the aircraft diverted from addressing key problems in the defeat of the armed forces facilities, infrastructure, industry, municipal government opponents. Meanwhile defense machine solves his puzzle — cover all listed from enemy aircraft. At least the fact that distracts the enemy aircraft itself.
Based on public data, now Russian air defense (the one that is included in the Air Force) has a shelf with 34 S-300PS, S-300PM and S-400. They include 100 divisions — ninety one C-300 and C-400 nine (five regiments of those where there are divisions of S-400, and include one battalion S-300PM, as these systems are compatible). This number included a training center in combat training SMP Ashuluk Astrakhan region, where there are two divisions of S-300P, for all that, strictly speaking, part of the battle he is not. In addition, 5 anti-aircraft missile brigades, reincarnated into regiments were transferred to the Air Force from the air defense of ground troops — two 2-divisional brigade S-300B and the «Book» and one mixed (two battalions of S-300B, one battalion » Beech «). All in all, Makar, we have 39 regiments, including 107 divisions (or 38 and 105, if we exclude Ashuluk). At first glance it seems like a lot.
But all this is distributed over a vast area of the country is very uneven. Obviously, is best protected by Moscow, which is located around 10 regiments of S-300P (consisting of 2-attaching them to two battalions of S-400), and all five regiments of the Russian strategic missile defense system with the A-135 missiles. Incidentally, this is the only functioning missile defense system in the world, because the U.S. is now only a decade of debate about missile defense, followed by a decade of hysteria Moscow. In 2011, all these shelves, and all systems of missile warning on the ground most of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan amounted troops Aerospace Defense (ASD). Why this very worthy EKR only Moscow and Moscow region shelves why S-300P/S-400 organizational torn from the rest of the air defense system of the country — questions hitherto unanswered.
Pretty well covered, of course, St. Petersburg — four regiments of S-300P and mixed regiment of S-300B / «Book.» Can be considered satisfactory defense of locations fleets. In the area of Murmansk, Severomorsk and three regiments stationed Polar S-300P, near Vladivostok and Nakhodka — two regiments of S-300P, with Nakhodka regiment received two divisions of S-400. In the Kaliningrad region, where the main base of the Baltic Fleet, there is one regiment S-300B and one regiment S-300P/S-400. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky is covered by one regiment of S-300P, Novorossiysk — as one who has already received two divisions of S-400.
Applicable with respect to the situation in the region of Khabarovsk — one regiment of S-300P and S-300V one in the adjacent Jewish Autonomous Region. Another regiment of S-300P covers the Komsomolsk-on-Amur.
That’s all not a bad or at least relatively satisfactory completed.
In the Central area outside the metropolitan area — one regiment of S-300P at Voronezh. In the Northwest region (excluding Peter and Murmansk region) — one regiment of S-300P in the Novgorod region (covers luxury cottages in Valdai). In the North Caucasus (excluding Novoroissiysk Regiment) — one regiment of S-300P near Rostov-on-Don, and one regiment SAM «Buk» in Krasnodar Krai. The latter can only conditionally be considered part of the country’s defense. «Beech» — a purely military SAM, its inclusion in the air defense system and artificially obviously wrong. All Volga (not counting Ashulukskogo polygon) — two regiments of S-300P (near Samara and Saratov region under Engels). Say it a lot, somehow comes out. But in the east of the case immeasurably worse.
The entire Urals, «basic edge of power,» with its military industry — one regiment of S-300P near Yekaterinburg. On the whole vast Siberia (the inhabitants of the European part, usually, do not represent its real size) — three regiments of S-300P (Novosibirsk, Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk Krai Achinsk) and one regiment of «Book» (Buryatia), which, as has been said, can only be attributed to the conditional defense of the country.
All that is in the more vast Far East, is already listed above (one regiment S-300P/S-400, four regiments of S-300P, one regiment of S-300B in the areas of Vladivostok — Nakhodka, Khabarovsk — Birobidzhan, Komsomolsk-na- Amur and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky). «Holes» between objects defense in the east up to several thousand kilometers, can fly them who and what you want in all quantities. In general, not only in Siberia and the Far East, and all over the country an unlimited number of objects critically fundamental industry and infrastructure and deployment Fri SNF (not to mention the everyday sun) are not covered by any defense.
Within the framework of the state program of armaments supposed to have 20 2-divisional eight regiments of S-400 and up to 10 new battalions of S-500 (the last Tipo should do puzzles not only air defense and tactical missile defense, and strategic ABM) in 2020. At the moment is actually no hesitation that these plans would be disrupted, although in fact they represent a very modest and lacking for adequate defense of the country.
Namely, the first production C-400 at one point it became clear that we lack the capacity to produce it, because many businesses have long been destroyed them with their «effective managers.» Because in an emergency procedure was started building factories in Kirov and Nizhny Novgorod, which naturally will claim time and money. In general, when the factory will complete, just as at one point it turns out that there are not enough workers and engineers. Those whom we multiply in recent years, in other words, these «effective management» as the «star» of pop music and sports, «politically active» Seligerskaya youth and the rest of the «best people in the country» for the production of tools do not fit. Especially since they are not suitable for solving complex scientific task of building modern military equipment. Pass quite a little time — and, again, in a moment it turns out that brainwashing science and religion can not be changed, but not without science through a very long period we take naked hands.
Complicates the situation is that defense equipment is very expensive. The cost of the 1st Regiment (even if there are only two divisions) modern AAMS comparable to the price of a large warship. With all this less shelf can not build, because it is only this fighting unit. In addition, at the moment there problem, which actually was not in the Soviet Air Defense Forces: Defense objects, even if they are placed in the interior of the country, require significant land cover with the actions of terrorists and saboteurs commandos. Forces personnel of the anti-aircraft missile regiment this puzzle is not solved. In addition, they need to cover and air short-range air defense systems. Now the shelves with the C-400 was prepared for this ZRPK «Armour-S» (2 per division), but the S-300P and B are not covered by anything.
The launch anti-aircraft missile system «Armour-C» in the exercise of air defense forces on Ashuluk range in Astrakhan region
Source: Misha Fomichev / RIA Announcements
In connection with the re neuvvyazkami defense with the latest technology we have from time to time be offered as a robust palliative solution: provide cover for air defense forces only objects SNF, in other words to make a «shield sword», which is obviously cheaper than cover the entire country. Essence of the idea is that in this case no opponent fails to us at one point to disarm and, as expected, do not dare poruha. What a shame it did not sound, this thought only the first glance is robust.
As you know, the main drawback of S-300 and S-400 — a low rate of reloading launchers. Because if the blow will be truly massive, even at the highest shooting accuracy they may not have enough missiles to destroy all targets. Accordingly, if these AAMS will not be enough, those two opponents who can disarm us covet (U.S. and China), will simply crush their mass missiles, aircraft and drones, with all this and SNF also suffice. In addition, these two opponents may choose another option — to start a non-nuclear weapon to destroy our industry, infrastructure and ordinary aircraft not covered by anything. We, in this case, apply for a nuclear strike him, knowing that we will get the same answer? Unfortunately, neither the smallest belief in this. Under this option, we can stay with the «sword and shield», but without a country.
Because like it was not cheap, but to cover as much as possible you need to important facilities and even a country. Generally, the greater the AAMS, the less even the strongest opponent the ability to crush their weight. And in this particular case, it will fall sharply desire to make angry.
Experience of Iraq, Yugoslavia, Libya showed that if the save (the first just on defense) conditional million now, it may result in loss of billion tomorrow. In other words, a similar «savings» is absurd from a purely economic point of view. Moreover, the European experience indicates that savings in the sun, leading to their ultimate reduction, in other words purely automatic, for loss of combat capability, also eventually turns more bolshennymi, while often quite silly expenditure. But we have not really decided to learn not only from others, and their own mistakes.
Alexander Hramchihin — Deputy Director of the Institute of Political and Military Analysis