Open the black hole turned-heavyweight representation of scientists about the growth of galaxies
The newly discovered supermassive black hole destroyed the idea of scientists about the growth of galaxies. Its mass is completely out of proportion to the size of the galaxy in which it resides, and scientists have no explanation as to how a hole could grow to such proportions, says the magazine Nature.
Typically, these black holes are ranked in the center of the galaxy and run multiple processes in it. Previously it was thought that supermassive black holes grow along with their galaxies. In most systems, the mass of the black hole is about 0.1% of the mass of the central region of the galaxy. Now, however, researchers have discovered a black hole, which accounts for 59% of the mass of the central region of the galaxy. By itself, the black hole is one of the biggest, but the galaxy in which it sits, is much smaller than ours.
A team of astronomers led by Remco van den Bosch of the Institute of Astronomy, the Max Planck Society in Heidelberg (Germany) studied the galaxy NGC 1277 remote from us by 228 million light-years away in the constellation Perseus. For its size it is quite compact — its mass is about 120 billion solar masses, or about 10% of the mass of the Milky Way. In addition, NGC 1277 is not very bright central part, but she has a "pseudo-convexity", which is a giant black hole.
A new black hole could learn from the images obtained with an infrared spectrometer in the Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory, U.S..
The authors observed the night sky in the constellation Perseus, trying to find a supermassive black hole in the nearby galaxy. To do this, the scientists calculated the velocity of the stars at the center and other parts of the "star cities" and calculated the difference between the two. Typically, the stars captured in the gravitational "embrace" of the black hole, moving faster than the other luminaries in the galaxy. This allows scientists to find black holes in distant galaxies and to measure some of their properties, including mass.
In total, Van den Bosch and his colleagues studied 700 galaxies located in relative proximity to the Milky Way. Their attention was drawn to a small galaxy NGC 1277 in the center of which, judging by the speed of the stars, black hole-lived heavyweight.
With the help of a detailed study by the Hubble telescope facilities, the researchers found that in NGC 1277 is a giant black hole whose mass is about 20 billion solar masses, which doubles the record set the previous "heavyweight" — a black hole in the galaxy NGC 4889. Given the total mass of the galaxy, the share of the black hole has about 14% of the weight or 59% of the mass of the central region.
This makes the black hole at the center of NGC 1277 the most massive celestial body known to man.
By itself, this galaxy has a lot of old stars, which indicates no signs of interaction between NGC 1277 and other galaxies nearby. Consequently, a giant black hole grew the usual scenario and it did not have any outside influences. And if so, scientists have no explanation as to how a hole could grow to such proportions.
"It's really very strange galaxy. It is almost entirely made up of a black hole. Maybe we opened the first object from the class of galaxies and black holes ", — said one of the authors, Karl Gebhardt of the University of Texas at Austin.
As they note, they have yet to learn about 100 galaxies in the constellation Perseus. It is possible that one of them is fraught with the new champion of black holes, which beat the record NGC 1277.