February 21, 2013 5:05
Is a volcanic island, its relatively large size, only 166 square meters. km and a height of 539 meters, is located in the eastern Pacific Ocean. On the island of 70 extinct volcanoes that never erupted for 1,300 years since colonization. The island belongs to Chile (west to the Chilean city of Valparaiso 3600 km). It has a population of about 2,000 people, so they say it is the most secluded corner of the world.
Ancient sculptors tried to use natural materials sparingly and do not do the extra work for this when marking a future article, they used the smallest cracks in the monolith of stone sculptures and cut down the whole series, not one by one.
Easter Island and all of its history is shrouded in mystery. Location sailed its first settlers? As they do not find this island? Why did and found 600 multi-ton stone statues? In 1772, the island was opened by Dutch explorer Jacob Roggeveen, it happened on Easter Sunday, hence the name — Easter Island (in the language of a Polynesian island called Rapanu).
What was surprising J. Roggeveen when he discovered that there peacefully get three different races, black, red-skinned and very white people. They were all welcoming and friendly to visitors.
Aborigines worshiped the god, whom they called Mac-Mac. Researchers found the carved inscriptions made on wooden tablets. Most of them were burned by the Europeans and could be called a miracle that something survived. The researchers think that this may be the statues of leaders, local people deified after their death.
These tablets are called rongo rongo were written first from left to right and then right to left. For a long time to decipher the symbols printed on them did not work, and only in 1996, Russia has managed to decode all four surviving plank.
But the most mysterious and fascinating discovery on Easter Island are huge monolithic statues, called moai natives. Most of them reach a height of 10 meters (there is also a smaller 4 meters), weighing 20 tons. Some reach even larger, and their weight is fantastic about 100 tons.
In the quarries very massive head, long ears, a heavy protruding chin and there are no legs. Few have a cap on the head of the red stone (possibly a deified after death in the form of statues of leaders).
To create moay builders used frozen lava. Moayi hew straight out of the rock and held only by a thin bridge, from which, after processing, the statue of chipped and adjusted to the desired shape. Crater of Rano Raraku, as a visual aid, still keeps all the processing steps of stone giants. First, cut out a general view of the statue, then move on to the master facial contours and Tessa front torso.
Then treated hips, ears and finally, hands folded on his stomach with a disproportionately long fingers. After that extra rock was removed, and only the lower part of the back is a narrow strip was connected to the volcano of Rano Raraku. Then the statue of the crater, across the island, and could move to the installation (ahu).
How difficult was it to move moay, said the fact that many of the statues have never been established on the ahu and a lot of them lay on the floor the way to the target. Sometimes this distance reached 25 kilometers. And now it remains a mystery as actually move these statues, weighing more than a dozen tons. Give the state that the idols themselves went to the beach.
Scientists conducted an experiment, vertically mounted statue rocked (tied ropes to the top) and alternately pushed forward then left, then right shoulder. Those who watched the work, it made such an impression that the statue is moving independently. And yet simple calculations show that a small population could not handle, move and install and half finished statues.
Who are Polynesians, from whom there were, how and when colonized these islands? The mystery of the origin of the locals has spawned many different hypotheses. And as the records of the history of Easter Island has taken place, and there were only anecdotal, it is clear that with the change of generations the culture and traditions of the islanders became more vague.
It is believed that the local population of Polynesia was from the Caucasus, India, Scandinavia, Egypt, and of course with Atlantis. Themselves islanders argue that since the past 22 generations, when the leader of Hotu Matua brought the first settlers in this paradise, but no one on the island knows where.
Thor Heyerdahl advanced his hypothesis. He drew attention to the physical match between the statues of Easter guise extended to certain peoples of South America. Heyerdahl wrote that sweet potatoes rosshey in abundance on the island could be brought only from Amazon. After studying the local legends and myths, he concluded that all the epic poem Polynesians in some way connected with the god Tiki (son of the Sun), who once sailed here from the eastern highlands.
Heyerdahl then began to study the South American culture of ancient times. In Peru, a legend that people came from the north of white gods who have set in the mountains of giant statues of solid stone. After the collision with the Incas near Lake Titicaca and the complete defeat of the leader of this nation led the Kon-Tiki, which translates as Sun-Tiki was gone forever.
The legends of the Kon-Tiki, led the remnants of his people across the Pacific Ocean to the west. Thor Heyerdahl in his book argued that the Polynesians American past, but the scientific world did not pay enough attention to his work. Can we talk seriously about the relocation of American Indians on Easter Island, if they had no ships and only primitive rafts!
Then Heyerdahl decided to actually prove that he is right now only the methods that he wanted to achieve were not scientific. He studied the records of Europeans first got here and found a lot of pictures with description rafts Indians who were made of balsa wood is very sturdy ball, and weighed half as much congestion. According to ancient models, he decided to build a raft. The crew picked up immediately: Erik Hesselberg artist Herman Watzinger engineer Swede Bengt Danielsson ethnographer Tursteyn Raab and Knut Haugland ..
The raft was built and in 1947, on April 28 from the port of Callao, they set sail, there were a lot of people to carry out the brave sailors. To be sure, few people believed in the successful end of the mission, she predicted the death of the undoubted. Depicted on a square sail of the Kon-Tiki — a great navigator, who (in what was sure Heyerdahl) in 500 AD opened Polynesia.
His name was unusual and called the ship. For 101 days, the expedition crossed 8,000 km in the Pacific Ocean. August 7 raft reached Raroia desert island, nearly crashed on the reef at the edge of the shore. After some time there on cakes Polynesians sailed, they had a hearty welcome the brave sailors.
And a few days later picked up by a French traveler schooner "Tamara" specifically for them to sail from Tahiti. The grand success of the expedition. Thor Heyerdahl proved that American Peruvians could have reached the islands of Polynesia.
Obviously, the first Polynesians settled the island, and maybe it was the Peruvians or tribes of South-East Asia. A.Metro professor who led the Franco-Belgian expedition to Easter Island in 1934 — 1935, and concluded that the first settlers led by chief Hotu Matua came here in XII-XIII centuries.
C. Englert sure that the population of the island began in the later time, and the installation of giant idols began in the XVII century, almost on the eve of the Europeans to the island. There are many different versions. For example, proponents of the mystical sects believe that the cradle of humanity — is Lem-Riya, the continent lost four million years ago and Easter can be a part of it.
In academic circles, and are now arguing about the appointment of stone statues, why thrown in his career finished moai, who and what were already knocked the statue, which some wearing red caps? James Cook wrote moai were established in honor of the deceased residents of the rulers and leaders of the island, other researchers think that the giants of Easter so labeled border between land and sea. This ritual "guardian" that warns against any invasion morya.Byli some who thought that the statues were frontier posts marking the ownership of tribes, genera and tribes.
Jacob Roggeveen thought that the statue is an idol. In the log book, he wrote: "About their service … we've noticed is that they make fire near high statues and sit down next to them, to lay his head. Then he folded his arms and shake them up and down. At the head of each statue placed on a basket of stones, pre-paint them white. "
On Easter Island there are statues that reach a height of 22 meters (the height of a 7-storey house!) Head and neck such statues 7 meters high with a diameter in the 3rd, the body of 13 m, the nose a little more than 3 m and a weight of 50 tons! All over the world, even today, there are not many cranes that will cope with the masses!