Irishman Bob MakKihol, blind two years ago in an explosion at a factory for processing of aluminum, recently regained his sight.

Hope to return

After the local doctors admitted their powerlessness before the return of the worker, he turned to Dr. Christopher Liu at Sussex Eye Hospital, who agreed to do the surgery. For its performance as a biological implant a cylindrical keratoprosthesis made of the tooth. Donor tooth with its root and part of the jaw made MakNihola son Robert.

In the first stage during the operation keratoprosthesis implanted under the muscle cheeks, preserving its viability. Within 3 months, he acquires a fibrous capsule and invades vessels. Then part of the buccal mucosa is excised from the surface of a blind eye tissue is removed and replaced with implanted vykroennuyu mucosa.

The second phase of the operation is carried out in 2-3 months. The cylinder is removed from the cheek. In the patient's cornea is formed hole, remove the iris, lens and vitreous body, then implanted and fixed keratoprosthesis. It put a hole optical part, made of PMMA.

After successful completion of the operation MakKihol Bob said: "Now I can watch TV and walk without assistance."

It should be noted that the first patient is not MakKihol Christopher Liu. Dr. Sussex claims that his method has been used in dozens of cases, and for the first time — in 2004.

Sight Judith Smith has started to fall in the age of 15 because of a rare adverse reaction to medication for epilepsy. As a result, in 1990, the left eye had to be removed, and the hope of the right to consider anything but muddy spots, but disappeared. The woman tried many treatments, underwent several operations, but only when she was already 42 years old, ophthalmologist at the clinic helped Sussex martyr see the light, and the first time she saw her grandchildren.

Artificial vision — a reality

Artificial vision is increasingly becoming a reality, both in science and in medicine — the authors of fiction about this and did not think.

British scientists are now working on the project of artificial breeding of eyeballs in the laboratory. Experts say that if they were able to successfully complete the study, the eyes, literally grown in the laboratory, may radically change the lives of millions of people.

Today, experts are at a fairly early stage of research, experimenting with animals and their stem cells. However, at the moment, with the help of some gene manipulation biologists managed to grow a common frog tadpoles, which has three embryos eyeballs.

"If we can identify all the genes involved in the formation of the globe, and to understand how they can be activated, it is virtually all that is needed for a healthy eyeball capable of replacing damaged. Today we have started early genetic studies and the search for genes necessary to produce artificial eyeball, "- says Nicholas Dale, head of the project."

In the shorter term, according to Dale, we can say that it is possible to get different parts of the artificial eye, created on the basis of the genetic material of the man, who in the future, these parts will be transplanted. Quite possibly artificially grow and iris, and lens, and retina.

Scientists have found almost complete set of genes involved in the formation and functioning of amphibians. Now we have to develop a model for offline activation of these genes, as well as a system of correct configuration and development.

Doctors say that a huge role in the formation of the globe play nitrogen compounds, and this is true for humans. The most significant of these compounds was detected ektoenzim present on the outer surface of all cells is involved in the formation of view.

Test this claim could and in fact, live frog embryo 8-cell connection ektoenzimami. As a result, the fetus began to show signs of the formation of yet another eyeball.

True, British experts warn that current evidence conclusions apply in respect of amphibians, but with a few changes, these studies can be applied to the vision of people.

Toothy Eye

In recent years the problem of artificial vision engaged in many and very serious. And now some ideas already allow blind people to see the world. For example, German physicians, as already mentioned Dr Christopher Liu at Sussex Eye Hospital, came to the conclusion that nothing can replace a man who lost an eye as good as his own tooth.

For example, in 2005, the 43-year-old steelworker Michael Mueller was an accident — he burned out both his eyes, and he is completely blind. You should have spent the rest of his life a man in the dark, if not a professor Conrad Hill.

Together with his Italian counterpart, the head physician of the German Eye Clinic Homburg invented an ingenious method of returning bad at first glance, to patients. For the manufacture of new eyes he needed a material that would not be rejected by the body, and in this case was extremely strong. After going through the different parts of the human body, the doctor opted for the teeth. And he began to experiment. They lasted for years, and finally, last year method finally formed.

Of maxillary canine tooth pulled out blind. The root of the tooth saws off and discarded, and in the canine drilled a hole in which to insert an optical cylinder of plexiglass (he will be the new pupil) and glued. Then we have to wait three months, and the tooth with a pupil can be easily inserted into the eye.

Michael now lives a full life thanks to his tooth and Professor Hill. "Again, I can not read, watch TV, enjoy the flowers. I see his wife, the daughter of the sun. I came back to life "- he is happy.

Gennady Nikolayev

Category: People, psychology, health

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