Freight, passenger helicopters are perhaps the most versatile, because without a fundamental revision of basic design can solve a wide range of tasks — from transportation and VIP-persons working in the Arctic to extinguish fires and transfer units landing. Our homeland, one of the world leaders in the sector, offers a line of helicopters Mi.
Difficult to find a country in the world where nothing is known about the Kalashnikov assault rifle — it's the star of world importance. Much the same can be said about the other world star — rotorcraft — Russian helicopter Mi-8. And if neotkazny Russian RPG-7 is often referred to as the "Magnificent Seven", the Milevskaya machine — A real "great eight" for half a century of service-proven in all criteria. Arctic cool and hot deserts, high mountains and impassable taiga, and even a boat deck — to work everywhere helicopters Mi-8.
A separate question of military service. One can endlessly long list those armed conflicts in which "eight" had to take an active role, but it is better to promise the participants themselves, for example the Indian helicopter pilots, who have made a fundamental contribution to the victory in Kargil armed conflict that took place in a mountainous area of the sector of Jammu and Kashmir in May — July, 1999.
In the process of reflection anger large forces and militants Pakistani Army units of permanent total of more than 2,000 people who had infiltrated into the Indian countryside to 10-12 km to 160 km — on the front, the Indian military command intensively used air and most importantly — the helicopters. In this case, due to the fact that in-house Indian Air Force attack helicopters have been unable to solve the puzzles on the specific fire support of infantry in the criteria of high mountains, the Indian commanders lured Mi-17 helicopters. Acts such machines, armed with 4 blocks of 16 or 32 rockets, have been very successful: they put a huge amount of fortified emplacements, killed a lot of fighters, ammunition and equipment of the enemy. Overall, the Indian helicopter sorties completed 2185 hours of total flying 925, delivered more than 800 people and 300 tons of cargo, evacuated the wounded about 600.
One of the officers of the 129th Helicopter Squadron, recalled: "After a sleepless night, during which we hung on six Mi-17 blocks, 57 mm rockets and machine supplied the right amount of containers with thermal traps, we were ready for the operation. Each helicopter had four blocks with 128 missiles. Over the next 2-days we applied fire strikes on enemy positions in the area of Mount Tiger and Tololing top. May 28, 1999 our unit consisting of 4 Mi-17s were ordered to hit the mark 5140, located in the 2-km north of Tololinga. We took off right on schedule, and everything went perfectly. Despite the severe fire from the ground, my helicopter struck around 5140 by two missile salvo of 64 rockets. In fact, as soon as we began to use the "Stingers". Two rockets fired from various parties were quite close to our helicopter. The other three helicopters, manned aircraft, Major Verma, Lieutenant Malihanom Aviation and Air Force Major Nitish also completed puzzle, firing 128 missiles. "
Specifically, after the Kargil conflict, the Indian Air Force Command announced the urgent need to adopt a shock and multi-purpose helicopters, capable of excellent work in the criteria of high mountains — at altitudes of 6,000 meters or more. Already in May 2000, the Ministry of Defence of India is a large order for the upgraded Mi-17-1V, and on February 17 2012, the brand new chapter was opened many years of military service record "eights" in India: at the air base, "Palam" was the official ceremony adopting the first 20 of a new type of helicopters — Mi-17V-5. The significance of the ceremony highlights the role in her defense minister AK Antony and Air Force Commander Air Marshal brain NA K. Browne. The Russian side was represented by General Director of "Rosoboronexport" Anatoly Isaykin, noting that "projects such as contracts for the supply of Mi-17V-5 is a key element in the privileged relations of strategic partnership, which is the case of Russia and India." Deliveries are scheduled to graduate from one hundred percent in 2014. In this case, the Indian media claim that "almost solved" the issue of buying another 71 Mi-17V-5.
The new millennium — a brand new car
Helicopters family Mi-8/17 as before intensively need in Russia and abroad, the geography of their "habitat" constantly grows. In October 2011, the media was mentioned after delivery 6 Mi-171SH for Peru — they have a number of new systems that have improved the effectiveness of combat deployment, and equipped complex of means of protection against the major systems and crew of the helicopter, as modern avionics for day and night and all-weather implementation. Helicopters have two sliding doors and electro-ramp — 26 commandoes can leave the helicopter for seven or eight seconds.
But customers, especially experiencing the heavy pressure "hand of the market" civilian operators, constantly make excessive demands on helicopters. Realizing the need for improvement in the upcoming family Mi-8/17, experts at OAO "Moscow Helicopter Plant. Mil "developed a program from deep modernization of Mi-171 (Mi-8AMT), which was approved in March 2011. As the base was taken by the Mi-171A1, and the emphasis is made in the modernization of a substantial increase in technical and economic features of the machine and lowered the price of its service and the prices of flight hour. In the future, the Mi-171A2 has become the main production and modification of the family, according to Executive Director of JSC "Moscow Helicopter Plant. Mil "Misha Karatkevich, for more than 10-15 years should provide the highest realization of the Russian Federation in this sector of the market.
In January 2012 OAO "Moscow Helicopter Plant. Mil "started the assembly of the first prototype of the modernized standard medium transport helicopter Mi-171A2. Distinctive features of the Mi-171A2 — new turboshaft engines VC-2500PS-03 APU "Safir» 5K / G, composite main rotor and X-shaped control screws, a modern complex avionics CCD-17 and a significant increase in the designated overhaul and machine resources and its major systems. Payload mass inside the cabin — 4000 kg, on the outside of the suspension — up to 5000 kg, maximum speed reaches 280 km / h and cruising — 260 km / h.
First experienced helicopter — OP-1 is constructed in the base variant configuration, and OP-2 would have been the highest trim levels — the beginning of its assembly is scheduled to end in 2012. Closing certification test and start of serial production of the upgraded version is scheduled for early 2014.
Succeeded by "eight"
First Mi-8 long years served faithfully and military and civilian operators, but by the early 80's basic "civil" model is to a large extent out of date. Realizing that far on an obsolete machine does not leave, Russian control of 30 July 1981 sees the decision to develop a new transport and passenger medium-lift helicopter — Mi-8M, putting one of the main requirements of a good software developer, to the modern global standards of profitability trucks / passenger traffic. For these purposes, provided for the use of promising engines TV7-117, composite bla
des and an elastomeric rotor head, X-shaped composite propeller control, improved aerodynamics fuselage, as modern flight control and navigation system, and a number of other innovations.
The degree of novelty was so superior that in 1983, the helicopter was given a new designation — the Mi-38. His view was formed in 1990, the rookie had to surpass the veteran by weight of cargo to 1.8 times the performance — to 2-fold, and fuel efficiency — by 1.7 times. For the first time in the history of the Russian helicopter from the outset provided for certification of vehicles on the Russian and zabugornom airworthiness standards. And here came the "thunder" — the collapse of the Union of Russian, grave economic crisis, poor co-operation with the sample zabugornom helicopter manufacturers, and only the December 22, 2003 in Kazan for the first time flew first experienced the Mi-38 (OP-1), filled engines PW127TS of "Pratt & Whitney."
But long "stagnation" in the program in no way affect the ability of the helicopter — the first step is the same test has permitted the developer to declare that the characteristics inherent in the terms of reference had been significantly exceeded. Namely, speed and altitude: they obtained the maximum speed of 320 km / h, and at takeoff weight 11.1 tons helicopter was able to reach a height of 8170 meters.
"The program is the creation of the Mi-38 is a very fundamental not only for the holding company" Helicopters of Russia ", which comes to our company, and for the country as a whole, — says General Designer of" Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant. Mil "Alex Samusenko. — As a result of meetings with representatives of different companies — potential operators we have a very positive response. Representatives of the companies were, one might say, surprised at the technical solutions that are implemented by helicopter to facilitate the activities of aircraft units of the customer — both flight and ground crews. "
At that caused "difficulties" with zabugornom engine manufacturers were forced to take a fundamentally Russian management solution — to intensify work on the version of the helicopter with Russian engines (TV7-117V company "Klimov") in order to avoid any dependence on foreign supplies.
"This is the general ideology of the project, — says Alexei Samusenko — the helicopter will have two versions of the power plant, which, we believe, will be in varying degrees, affect the cost of production helicopter also will be able to attract a suitable degree Russian Operator wherein both civilian and from the power unit. "
In addition, Russian engines allow to increment the highest take-off weight of 600 kg helicopter — to 16.2 tons, the highest weight of cargo — up to 6 tons in the cabin and 7 tons in the outer suspension, while the highest rate of a normal take-off weight — 14.2 tons — will be 310 km / h and reaches a range of 1000 km.
Work on the establishment of the TV7-117V engine takeoff power of 2,800 hp. s. and up to 3750 liters. s. on emergency power, created for the Mi-38, received the highest value in the plans as JSC "Klimov", and the entire United Engine Company. In 2011, the two assembled at JSC "Klimov" flight standard engine TV7-117V were transferred to OAO "Moscow Helicopter Plant. Mil "for installation on the first experimental helicopter — Mi-382, demonstrated at the static display at the MAKS-2011 and planned to start of flight testing this year. This year the company "Klimov" to put another two engines TV7-117V on the Kazan Helicopter Plant — they will establish on the third flying prototype of the Mi-38.
Feature of the second flying prototype — whether it contains a full complement of new integrated complex avionics IBKO-38 development "Transas", unified by the main components of the complex IBKV-17 for the upgraded "eight" and providing flight operations and NIGHT MODE day or in different geographical and weather criteria — in automatic and manual modes-director control helicopter. The complex has an open architecture, allowing you to include additional wireless system and optoelectronic equipment, introduce new display modes disk imaging.
Certification of the Mi-38 should be completed in 2014 and from 2015 on, he should begin flowing to customers. In the framework of programs from the Mi-38 for the first time in the history of the Russian helicopter along with the development and creation of the helicopter comes under his trainer — the layout of the development of such a simulator "Transas" could create at the MAKS-2009. It will simulate not only the cabin as such, and the mobility of the helicopter — in other words, the responses to the actions of government, zakabinny simulate the situation.
"Overall, we were able to bring in the newest car design and other solutions, allowing to rightfully be called the Mi-38 helicopter of the XXI century — says chief designer of" Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant. Mil "Alex Samusenko. — It comes as a modern electrical equipment, and various new structural materials, particularly composites, comprising more than 30 percent of the total amount of structural materials used in the helicopter. In this particular made of composites such sensing at least some structural elements of a helicopter main rotor and a control screw portion and the fuselage. And all this, of course, not in any way to the detriment of safety. Moreover, the brand new machine will have increased resources and calendar dates of service, and we even assume that the Mi-38 will not have restrictions on the resource — it will fly on technical conditions. Strictly speaking, the flow of Mi-38 helicopter at the disposal of Russian operators will lead to a change in the approach to high-quality service. After all, if you are currently on the Mi-8 every seven or eight years to change the rotor blades, in respect of the Mi-38, we believe that this will not have to do that. "
The power, the time-tested
Speaking of multi-purpose vehicles and helicopters of Mi, we can not bypass the Mi-26 — a unique helicopter, up to now is the most hoisting machine of its own class in the world. The company "Boeing" in the 70 years through programs from HLH (Heavy Lift Helicopter — «Heavy Transport helicopter") Tried to do for the U.S. Army helicopter HF-62 most takeoff weight of 53,524 pounds (maximum takeoff weight of the first Mi-26 — about 56 tons), but a number of technical and other appropriate disposition programm was closed. Finally, when in 2002 the Yankees became necessary to evacuate from the mountainous regions of Afghanistan two helicopters "Chinook", just Mi-26T was able to solve the puzzle — it cost the Pentagon's budget is 650 thousand dollars.
The Mi-26 can rightly be called a veteran — the first production aircraft took to the air in October 1980, but even after three decades, it has no substitute, and not even in sight. But time is relentless — technology with its flow evenly aging and at the technical level, and mentally, so that it constantly need to upgrade. The Mi-26 is no exception, because a couple of years back at the initiative of "Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant. Mil "started programm creation of an improved" Russian heavyweight ", which was given the designation Mi-26T2.
"As part of the modernization programs from we charted the substitution of the motor, the installation of new navigation and piloting complex revision rotor head — to remove grease points, as the installation of a new board defense, able to counter missiles wi
th thermal seeker — says chief designer of" Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant them. Mil "Alex Samusenko. — Upgraded Mi-26 submitted for the tender announced by the Ministry of Defence of India have found our car prospective customers, thus effectively blocked all the properties, including operation in the mountains. "
Helicopters will receive an upgraded engine D-136-2, which is designed Zaporozhye enterprise "Ivchenko-Progress" and will have the highest take-off power 11,650 liters. with., additional emergency mode with short-term power increase up to 12,500 liters. s. (At temperatures up to 30 degrees C), is also equipped with modern digital control (FADEC).
A distinctive feature of the new helicopter — shortened to 2-pilots and crew of brand new avionics. The developer was a difficult task — to make such interface "crew — Equipment", which would guarantee the provision of non-hazardous flight to different criteria. In fact refers to the development of effective and reliable machine-clock implementation, which has reduced the crew and equipment on the basis of modern avionics complex avionics, which comes in the framework of navigation and piloting complex system of electric display, on-board digital computer, satellite navigation system and a digital piloting complex.
The complex provides round the clock use of a helicopter in normal and adverse weather conditions, while providing the ability to perform under these criteria for automatic flight on the route — with access to a given point in advance, the approach and final approach maneuvers, and return to the primary and alternate aerodromes. In addition, in the avionics Mi-26T2 integrated clock surveillance system GOES, system replacement devices, modern complex communications and on-board control system. Mi-26T2 will be able to fly at any time of the day, in normal and adverse weather conditions, including over bezorientirnoy areas.
Mi-26T2 was created initially for civilian market, but the machine is keen enthusiasm and military operators. On the Indian tender has already been mentioned, but starting a military customer can be fully and Russian Ministry of Defense. Last already buys — for the first time in the last decade — the new Mi-26 in the base configuration (in 2011 received four helicopters), but the version of Mi-26T2 has a greater capacity through the introduction of round the clock and can be transported in a military transport version 82 commando , and in the version sanitary or when participating in disaster relief — to 60 the wounded (unhealthy).
With the help of a helicopter can also do construction works of varying degrees of difficulty or make a quick delivery of fuel and autonomous refueling of various equipment on the ground, as do fire fighting, that of, taking into account nedavneshnie summer fires is a very exciting ones. Compare — fire version of the Mi-26T is equipped with a weir-15 APU unit capacity of 15 tons, while the fire E-8 and Ka-32 have a spillway devices 2.5-5 tons. Moreover, the main "winged fire" — Be-200ES can take to their tanks up to 12 tons, but with all this difficult and more expensive to operate in comparison with the helicopter. It should be added that the Be-200ES Russian Emergencies Ministry in the park units, and fire option as needed can be converted 10's Mi-26 in service at the Ministry of Emergency Situations and the Ministry of Defense.
In general, the Mi-171A2, Mi-38 and Mi-26T2 — a "triple shock" in the model number of the holding company "Helicopters of Russia", able to take a significant share of the world market.