The moral development of the child is closely related to intellectual. In fact, for a child to be able to make any moral judgments, it must reach a certain intellectual level.
There are three stages of moral development of the child.
Prednravstvenny level (From 4 to 10 years). At this stage, children's actions are determined by external circumstances, and the point of view of other people is not taken into account too. This phase is divided into two stages: early judgment shall be made according to the reward or punishment that may lead to this act. Later in the judgment of the act shall be made in accordance with the benefit that can be derived from it.
The conventional level (From 10 to 13 years). Moral position of the child at this stage has not been formed, and he prefers to be guided by the principles of other people. At first, his judgments are based on the fact whether it will move the approval of people or not. Closer to the opinions of children 12-13 years are beginning to be imposed in accordance with the established order, respect for the existing order.
Postconventional level (From 13 years). It is believed that only the age of thirteen in the child begins to develop true morality. That is, there are a teenager their own criteria according to which it can be judged on their behavior or the behavior of others.
Morality as a woman
It is interesting that the above concept of Kohlberg was condemned among its female employees. They said that Kohlberg developed a system of masculine values, without taking into account that women are not focused on self-affirmation and justice, and to care about the other person, and thus relegated women to the conventional level of development.
Therefore, one of the officers of Kohlberg, Gilligan, has developed a scheme of moral development, especially for girls.
In making a judgment about the act, the woman is more likely to be guided not by principles and vision of the person who committed this act specifically. Therefore, it is more inclined to believe a person who has the care of others, "good", and who by their behavior causes them harm — "selfish." According to Gilligan, the development of morality in women goes through three levels, between which there are transitional stages.
Level 1: samoozabochennost. At this level, women occupy only those who are able to meet its own needs and to ensure its existence.
At the first stage of transition selfishness begins to give way to a tendency to self-denial. The woman is still focused on their own well-being, but in the case of decision-making is increasingly takes into account the interests of other people and combine it with them.
Level 2: self-sacrifice. Social norms, which mostly have to follow the woman, forcing her to move to the satisfaction of his own desires only after the satisfaction of the needs of others. This role is a "good mother" when the woman is forced to behave according to the expectations of other people and to feel responsible for their actions, constantly putting her to have to choose.
At the second stage of the transition from a woman rises to the level of self-sacrifice level self-esteem, since more and more to take into account their own needs. It tries to combine the satisfaction of their personal needs with the needs of other people, the responsibility for which she continues to experience.
Level 3: self-esteem. At this level, she understands that she only has the ability to make choices about her own life, if it does not harm the people associated with her family or social ties and the general membership of the human race. In this sense, the third level of moral consciousness develops already in the morality of non-resistance.
Subsequently, Kolberg, author of the "male" version of the moral development of man, subsequently expelled from his classification postconventional stage, as the critics found it too "egalitarian" and bearing on himself too obvious stamp of Western culture.