October 31, 2011 19:04
This program will talk about Russian devotion associated with a very dangerous and insidious evil — the devil with a bath. Eastern Slavs believed that the bath nests particularly wicked evil spirit that can bring people to death, and therefore bath building built for the sake of purity, is the place to be unclean, bad, bad to be entered in the solitude. But first things first.
Bath has always been of great importance for the Slavs, and has to this day. This is one of the best preserved traditions. Many people who have their own gardens or who live out of town, be sure to seek to place in his bath. And in the city without too nowhere. Now let in all the apartments have a bath, a shower, but the cities, there are baths, which gladly go citizens — not only for washing, but for pleasure: a ferry, the spirit of birch and oak twigs, ice cold pool.
Russian bath is often struck foreigners. Thus, in the XVII century English diplomat Dzhils Fletcher wrote: "You often see them (to support the body) run out of the bath in soap and steaming from the heat, like a pig on a spit, throw naked in the river or souse in cold water, even in the most bitter cold. " Englishman shocked this custom, but in Russia to this day it is one of the most enjoyable and healthy way to spend leisure time. Not for nothing in Russia said: "Bath soars, bath rules, sauna fix everything."
Saunas can be divided into several subspecies. The first — a bath, which is heated in a white, more convenient to use. Implies that there is a stone, brick or metal stove with a tank for heating water (part of modern individual baths are just such a design). Drove out to a bath to heat, leaves a lot.
The most exotic and perhaps archaic subspecies bath — Bath, who arranged inside a Russian stove. First furnace stoked and inside heated iron pots with water. Then, when heated the oven, from the ashes of its insides scraped out, the space inside was covered with straw, and hot coals, heat, shoveling in a corner.
Then the man climbed in and washed carefully in order not to get dirty with soot from the walls of the furnace and, God forbid, do not sit on the coals. Probably due to this strange and unsafe cleaning Ukrainian Bath got its present name — "Lazne" (from the word "climb"). It should be noted that since the Slavs not washed frequently.
The most common type of baths were the ones that were heated in the smoke because they do not require a lot of wood. Bath consists of a bath and dressing room, where people leave your clothes before washing. The door to the guys make a very small and with a high threshold to keep out the hot air. Inside was a pair pot with water and an outdoor fireplace with hot stones. He gave the heat and steam.
Smoke from that fire out partially through the hole in the ceiling and walls of the bath were dark, smoky, that did not look very aesthetically pleasing, but consistent with the purposes of disinfection (in the bath because there were not only wash, but also to be treated). Soot, however, there was little, if properly stoked sauna, such as birch wood. First bath was heated and then gave her some survived, splashed a bucket of water on the hot stones and produced the first pair to avoid carbon monoxide poisoning. Then you can wash, but keeping a number of precautions in order not to offend-bath spirit of these walls.
Swab, as has been said, seemed openly being dark, treacherous and cruel. Small and seemingly insignificant, in the form of a naked man with a long beard, moldy, it could be a lot of problems for those who come into his possession. For example, could take a shot and hot stones out of the oven and get into washable. Slip the arm a man who wants to freshen up, instead of the bucket of ice water — bucket with boiling water. Could push and put on the stove so that the poor burned to the meat, and a tuft of his skin remained on the stove. Could bring a faint and finally could steamed to death — poisoned by carbon monoxide.
Bathhouse Spirit, however, is not always pictured in the image of the old man. Sometimes it might be an old woman, and a terrible shaggy banniha. Sometimes it was called down one mother, sometimes obderihoy, including because could also put on the stove and peel the skin. Banniha could prividetsya not only in the form of an old woman, but in the form of a black cat. In any case, from her troubles were waiting as well as from the bath.
Air spirits pictured as being extremely dangerous — far more dangerous than the house, and even wood spirit. Perhaps because the Slavs, whose world has done all the world populated by various spirits — frights, mermaids, ovinnikami and others — did not believe that the filth and sickness, which they washed off in the bath itself, is not going away. They believed that all impurities absorb the spirits of the place, and because the nature of their premerzky. Sought from the bath to stay away — do not go there without the need, especially in the Christmas time, a time when spirits could mischief particularly hard.
Bath usually built away from the house, at the far corner of the yard, in the suburbs, but she can do the fence. That is one side. On the other hand, a visit to Bath was still necessary, the purity should be strictly observed, and the one who did not go to the bath, could earn a reputation as a rat, a suspicious person. So, like it or not, had to negotiate with the swab, given his whims and demands.
Requirements might be different. For example, the swab may not like the place, which is composed of Bath. He then, according to popular belief, inducing sickness someone from home, and no matter how beat, man could not recover, as the family did not realize shift bath. Then the illness disappeared as if by magic. If the same old room suddenly burned, then in its place was forbidden to make any room. Place was considered impure. Here, or a new fire that will burn the building, or the mouse zavedutsya or bugs — in short, there will not be plaguing.
Another swab hated when in the bath drinking water intended for washing, even if it is clean. And as people cross on his neck and did not stand, and therefore, if a person was to wash, the cross should be removed and left in the waiting room, but better — at home. Observe this tradition and to this day, but not for old and due to common sense. Metal objects in the sauna are heated strongly and begin to burn the skin, so their pre-filmed.
Crucifix was often just out of metal — silver, gold or copper. Sometimes they are carved in stone, but the stone in the bath is heated and burns better than iron. Another swab does not like, if washable hurry, customize each other — then expect from him tricks. This belief is also quite efficient if you think about it. After all, if a hurry, in the confusion of just easily confused ice water with boiling water and sit on a hot stove.
There were ways to appease Bannik. First — to bring him a slice of rye bread on the feast, and the stove to pour a large rock salt. Second — take a black hen and not oschipyvaya its feathers, strangle and bury it under the threshold of the bath. Apparently, this ceremony — similar sacrifice, which is designed to appease the otherworldly forces.
The third way to negotiate with the swab — do not bathe in the bath on the third or seventh pairs, that is, on the third and seventh of the furnace. The real reason was fear of carbon monoxide, which is accumulated in the room. But popular imagination explained the ban anyway. On the third or seventh steam-bath to clean himself, sometimes with his wife, bannihoy and with their children, and sometimes the whole neighborhood is calling evil — and the home, and the forest. You can not stop them — wroth, and then the rest will not. Sign punished, by contrast, bath and melt away, leaving the spirits of a tub with spring water, and a new broom — warm up.
But carbon monoxide, and burns were minor compared to what could have created swab. The fact that the bath regularly used not only as a place to wash and treatment, but also as a delivery room. Childbirth, the former women's mystery, could not take place in the common house, in front of men, so pregnant, ready to leave, were in the bath. Since it is just a cross in any case not removed (but no bath so melted). Woman in childbirth or a moment left alone, so that she and the child does not become prey to evil. It was believed that the swab and banniha, especially if they are angry at people who violate their prohibitions, can steal the baby and replace it on your child. This was called the changeling child thrown.
The legends of the changeling in one form or another, there are many European nations. Like, perfume — elves, trolls, goblins — they steal children and replace them with their cubs and even inanimate objects, which will bring evil spell, forcing the others to see the child, for example, instead of the wooden deck.
Stolen child lives with evil spirits and raised her as one of them. Changeling could wait fates. If it was a demonic child, it might survive to adulthood, masquerading as human and differs from it by only one — the lack of soul. Or it could wither after a while. Changeling distinguished by the fact that he refused to eat, shout out loud, had a congenital defect or just a lot of ill.
Historians believe that these stories appeared on purpose. In the Middle Ages was a very high infant mortality, and, of course, the death of a child lay the guilt on the parents. To ease the pangs of conscience, they comfort themselves with the thought that it is not their bad heredity or neglect their duties, but simply spirits stole their child and slipped them changeling. Slavs believed that the spirits who are able to do so, and were goblin-bath.
Bannik fear, of course. But this does not mean that it is not trying to deal with. Bath was a place for divination, and girls in special holidays (Christmas time in the same) could run there tell fortunes for Mr Right. Like, spirits know many things, including things that are hidden, so why not consult? And advise, and very original way.
On Christmas Eve at midnight the girl, sometimes gathered a small group (not to be scared), came to the open door of the bath, lifted her skirts and waited for them to swab touches. If he touched a hairy hand — the girl is a rich suitor, if bare — the poor, and if wet — drunk. True, in the middle of nowhere there was a guarantee that the hand belongs to swab and not huliganyaschemu neighbor — it's a mystery, but in numerology believed.
Today about Bannik little remembered except in the villages where the preserved traditional baths — dark, log, standing on the sidelines in the bush elderberry and cherry. Agree, such entourage has to wait for something supernatural. And the citizens of Bannik almost forgotten. Surgically white tiles and gleaming metal taps somehow not to have to repopulate the space fantasy bathrooms ancient spirits associated with purity and at the same time be on the side of evil forces. Modern poltergeists — another thing to present them in the bathroom can be easily. But more about that some other time.